Read this feel in your heart, and bones, become one with understanding. Love Brenda

The Sacred Seven Prayers

O Great Spirit, who art before all else and who dwells in every object, in every person and in every place, we cry unto Thee. We summon Thee from the far places into our present awareness.
O Great Spirit of the North, who gives wings to the waters of the air and rolls the thick snowstorm before Thee, Who covers the Earth with a sparkling crystal carpet above whose deep tranquillity every sound is beautiful. Temper us with strength to withstand the biting blizzards, yet make us thankful for the beauty which follows and lies deep over the warm Earth in its wake.

O Great Spirit of the East, the land of the rising Sun, Who holds in Your right hand the years of our lives and in Your left the opportunities of each day. Brace us that we may not neglect our gifts nor lose in laziness the hopes of each day and the hopes of each year.

O Great Spirit of the South, whose warm breath of compassion melts the ice that gathers round our hearts, whose fragrance speaks of distant springs and summer days, dissolve our fears, melt our hatreds, kindle our love into flames of true and living realities. Teach us that he who is truly strong is also kind, he who is wise tempers justice with mercy, he who is truly brave matches courage with compassion.

O Great Spirit of the West, the land of the setting Sun, with Your soaring mountains and free, wide rolling prairies, bless us with knowledge of the peace which follows purity of striving and the freedom which follows like a flowing robe in the winds of a well-disciplined life. Teach us that the end is better than the beginning and that the setting sun glorifies not in vain.

O Great Spirit of the heavens, in the day's infinite blue and amid the countless stars of the night season, remind us that you are vast, that you are beautiful and majestic beyond all of our knowing or telling, but also that you are no further from us than the tilting upwards of our heads and the raising of our eyes.

O Great Spirit of Mother Earth beneath our feet, Master of metals, Germinator of seeds and the Storer of the Earth's unreckoned resources, help us to give thanks unceasingly for Your present bounty.

O Great Spirit of our souls, burning in our heart's yearning and in our innermost aspirations, speak to us now and always so that we may be aware of the greatness and goodness of Your gift of life and be worthy of this priceless privilege of living.Type your paragraph here.

History from the Seer: 
Historical Notes on the Bella Bella Heiltsuk
©1977/1997 Heiltsuk Cultural Education Centre
(Left Image - Wolf by Shirl Hall)
The present-day Heiltsuk (formerly the Bella Bella) Band of Indians are the main descendents of Heiltsuk-speaking peoples who inhabited an area of approximately 6000 sq. miles in the central coastal region of what is today known as British Columbia. Heiltsuk traditional territory extends from the southern tip of Calvert Island, up Dean and Burke Channels as far as Kimsquit and the head of Dean Inlet to the northeast, and up the Mathieson and Finlayson Channels to the north. It includes Roscoe, Cousins and Spiller Inlets, and Ellerslie Lake, and the outer coast regions of Milbanke Sound, Queens Sound, and the Goose Island Group and Calvert Island.

The oldest established arhaeological date in this region is 7190 B.C. from a carbon-14 sample taken from Namu. Archaeological remains at Namu reveal that except for a relatively brief break in the strata, people have been living there continuously for the past 9700 years. Oral tradititions of the present-day Heiltsuk maintain that the first generation of their ancestors were "set-down" by the Maker in various places within Heiltsuk territory and were living here before the time of a great flood.

There is considerable archaeological evidence that it was during the period from 1000 B.C. on, that many of the cultural features present when the first immigrants and explorers came were developed. Aspects of material culture include plank houses, ceremonial art, canoes, cedar bark technology, spinning, many different kinda of wood-working tools, the bow and arrow, and a considerable variety of wood and fibre artifacts.

Oral traditions, archaeological and ethnographic evidence establish that, by the time of contact with Europeans, central coast peoples were living in village groups distributed throughout this area. The pattern of living that had developed over the centuries was characterized by people moving from place to place throughout the year, harvesting a variety of sea and land resources that were seasonal in different places at different times of the year. During the winter months, people would congregate in relatively large villages, then during the spring, summer, and fall, disperse in smaller groups to different camps and food- harvesting areas. Salmon was a distinct, although by no means the only, staple food resource in this area. In fact, utilisation of an extensive and diverse resource base is a characterisic of both ancient and contemporary human history in the central coast.

At the time of contact, there were five main groups of Heiltsuk-speaking peoples who subsequently amalgamated to form the Heiltsuk (formerly Bella Bella) Band of Indians:

(lit. "outside people", referring to people living outside of the inlets toward and including the outer coasts)
("inside people" living up the inlets)
("People of 'Yisda")
("people of Qvüqvai" or "calm water people"
("down-river" or "north")
In 1834, the total population of these groups was estimated to be around 1600. While some of the fith Heiltsuk-speaking group, the 'Xixis, also joined with the Bella Bella, the majority, together with some of the Qvuqvayaitxv, joined together with their immediate neighbours the Kitasoo Tsimshian at the village of Klemtu to form the Klemtu or Kitasoo Band.

Contrary to persisting popular notions that coastal peoples roamed at random over the unmarked coast and hinterlands living from hand to mouth in perpetual awe of nature, at the time of contact, the Heiltsuk peoples had a well-developed hunting, fishing, and gathering technologies including multiple techniques for preserving perishable food stuffs. They were able mariners and shrewd ecologists. They had a well-developed system of land ownership and resource management, and maintained extensive networks of sharing, redistribution, and trading relationships that united the Heiltsuk groups and included other groups up and down the coast. Dramatic ceremonial systems, art forms and oral traditions kept cultural, economic, and environmental knowledge alive and in constant review or practice.

It was scarcely 200 years ago that European and other immigrants started coming to the coast. First came the fur traders and then the explorers, then in rapid succession, canneries, mining and logging operations, missionaries, reserve commisioners, government agents, and government and legal systems that asserted themselves all over preexisting indigenous systems. The present-day culture and challenges facing the Heiltsuk are a combonation of over 9000 years of cultural development and the rapid changes brought about over the past two centuries.

The most significant and far-reaching changes had occured by the turn of this century, and a brief chronology of events and selected highlights are presented below.

In 1793, Captain George Vancouver explored Heiltsuk waters for the first time. American fur traders were already in the area and were quickly joined by British fur traders. In 1833, Hudson's Bay Company built a fur trading post, Fort McLoughlin, on Campbell Island, in order to intercept American fur trade competition on the coast. The Fort was located at McLoughlin Bay, or Old Town as the site is now known, about a mile and one-half south of the present village of Waglisla. In 1843, the Fort was abandoned. Sometime around 1850, Hudson's Bay Company re-established a trading post on the site of the former Fort. In 1862 the great smallpox epidemic that originated in Victoria spread up the coast and decimated whole villages of Heiltsuk peoples. In 1867, although the impact was not to be felt locally for a couple of decades, the British North America Act created the Federal Government of Canada and this government was given the responsibility for "Indians, and lands reserved for Indians" (Sec. 91, subsection 24). The first Indian Act was written in 1870.

By 1870, an increasing number of Heiltsuk village groups were amalgamating by settling together in Old Town. In 1881, Reserve Commisioner O'Reilly arrived and apportioned 13 reserves to the "Bella Bella Indians" and 6 to the nearby "Kokyet Tribe" (Qvuqvayaitxv). These reserves were surveyed in 1888. (3 additional reserves were alloted in 1916 and surveyed in 1926.) By 1889, the last of the Heitsuk villages in the area (Qvuqvai) had relocated, some to Old Town and the remaining to Klemtu. By then the combined ravages of smallpox and other diseases had reduced the resident population at Old Town to 250.

Although by the late 1800's, the Bella Bella Heiltsuk were permanently established at Old Town, they still maintained traditional living patterns, dispersing at different times of the year to harvest seasonal resources and relocating at customary traditional hunting and fishing camps. (Missionary reports at the time complain that most of the village was away for most of the year). As immigrants began to assume control over the harvest of indigenous resources, they relied on Heiltsuk knowledge, skill and expertise in harvesting these resources. Heiltsuk easily participated in so-called "commercial" fishing, logging, and for a while, fur-sealing enterprises into their yearly cycle. Thus, for example, in the 1880's the entire village would move out Goose Island in the spring to hunt fur seal, then from there to Rivers Inlet to work for the canneries. At the turn of the century, many people were self- or otherwise employed for part of the year as hand loggers. People who once build canoes for their own use, trade, or sale, were now making gas boats.

During the late 1890's and early 1900's the entire village relocated from Old Town to the present village site of Waglisla. Within the first two decades of this century, a new hospital and church were constructed with the aid of community contributions and free labour. By 1903 the community had purchased its own sawmill with which lumber for new houses and the community boardwalk was cut. In 1902, the missionary reported that: "Already these Indians had a measure of self-government [of a kind similar to the missionary - the Heiltsuk certainly had self-government before, ed.]. The chiefs were organized into a council which was responsible for maintaining law and order in the community. They were empowered to levy and collect fines for violations of the law and these moneys were kept in a fund for community projects. The first use of the funds was the building of a wharf at the new town." (R.G. Large, Drums and Scalpel., Mitchell Press Ltd., p.18). In 1905, DIA oficials reported that the Bella Bella people "...are making good progress, have a good wharf on the reserve at which all the steamers desiring to do so can berth, own a steam saw-mill, for which they paid some $3000 cash, and are deserving of praise for their energy and perseverance in carrying out anything they undertake" (DIA Annual Reports for 1904, p.270)

However, it was not long before many of the general economic problems that have persisted through this century were identified, although there has always been more than one point of view as to exactly what these problems and their solutions were.

DR. R.W. Large, medical missionary at Bella Bella for many years, reported to the home mission in Toronto: "our aim on this coast should be to get the Indians ready for moving away from the reserves in the future, and mingling with the whites. Hunting, hand-logging and fur-sealing will fail them; their land is useless, so they will be forced to do it" (Missionary Society Annual Reports 1905-06, p.1xiii.)

In August of 1913, all the leadders of this community took the occaision of the McKenna-McBride Reserve Commision hearings at Bella Bella to present their assessment of their current situation and future needs: mainly that they had a reserve at the mouth of every creek and stream in the vicinity; and that they were concerned about the economic future of their children as the land and traditional fishing and hunting rights were being taken away and given to others for their own use and profit.

We think that the money which has been recieved for all these fishing licenses in the past should have been (and should be) paid over to us, as all the fishing priveleges rightly belong to us Indians. The place is ours. All the money which is recieved from the licenses issued to the Cannery people should be paid over to us. This place was ours long before the Cannery people ever came here, and before any white people ever came into the country at all (Bob Anderson in Evidence Commision on Indian Affairs, 1913-14. p.58)

Much of the testimony is summed up in the following statement which shows that the people of Bella Bella identified the same problems as did outsiders - land scarcely fit for cultivation, increasingly restricted participation in commercial fishing and logging industries, questionable economic future for generations to come - but considered a different solution from that of moving away and assimilating with the immigrants.

We have a reserve but there is none of it fit for cultivation. We are satisfied with the reserve for living purposes, but we would like to have the free use of the surrounding land for the purposes of logging and fishing and to have all the hunting priveleges on it. We are afraid that later on we will have no way to make any money, and we would like to have these villages reserved to us now. Our children are growing up now and they will have no way to make their living. That is what is bothering us at the present time. If the Government bouth this place from us years ago we have not heard anything about it and we would like to know something about it. (Charles Windsor in Evidence Commision on Indian Affairs, ibid. pp.67-8)

To this the Chairman of the Commision replied: "All we know is that there is a quantaty of land throughout the Province marked and set aside as Indian Reserves, and it is with these Reserves only, that we are dealing" (ibid. p. 68)

The Chairman's response is indicitave of the main concern of the joint federal-provincial Reserve Commission, namely to settle disputes between the Federal Government (who had jurisdiction over Crown lands and Indian Reserve lands in the province of B.C.) and the Provincial government (who owned the rest of the land) over the size and extent of Indian reserves in B.C.

The response of the Chairman is also all to characteristic of the general reaction of government and government agents to concerns voiced by indigenous peoples over the changing status of their traditional rights and livelihood. New laws and regulations and economic competition have been assumed by the government and outside advisors to be accomplished, irreversible facts. This is the political and economic environment to which the Bella Bella people have had to adjust during this century .

History as we have it now.

Good Evening my Aboriginal Family. Happy New Year 
At the Request of a reader I am publishing to accounts of " The English Murders of Beothuks" so it's a long read, but worth it .
1- A History of the Beothuk, a talk given by Ingeborg Marshall at the launch of her book A History and Ethnography of the Beothuk, at the meeting of the Newfoundland Historical Society, St. John's, 19th Sept. 1996.

In this talk I will give an overview of the development of Beothuk/White relations which is the backbone of the history of the Beothuk as we know it. Most of the information comes from records kept by Europeans (mostly English). Because there was so little contact with the Beothuk, their voice is nearly absent from the record and it was therefore not possible to evaluate accounts by the English against evidence from the Beothuk. This is a limitation that I have not been able to compensate for other than making the very best of information that came directly from Beothuk.

There are very few 16th century reports of native people in Newfoundland and none are reliable descriptions of Beothuk. What emerges from the records is that by the mid-1500s Newfoundland's native population was said to be austere and to avoid contact.

We fare better in the 17th century. Letters by John Guy and Henry Crout from the English colony at Cupids describe a meeting with Beothuk in 1612 at Sunnyside in Bulls Arm, Trinity Bay. After a ritual involving shaking a white wolf skin, singing and dancing and striking their chests the Beothuk and colonists exchanged presents. The two parties then shared a meal. Trade was done by the silent barter method - that is in the absence of the trading partner. The Beothuk suspended furs from poles and Guy and his men left what they considered to be a fair exchange. Guy thought that the Beothuk were harmless people and planned to return to them in the following year. He described their appearance, clothes, houses, canoes and their habit of colouring themselves and their utensils with red ochre. Later documents clarify that the ochre was a mark of tribal identity for the Beothuk and that the first coat given to an infant was a sign of initiation.

Henry Croute's correspondence with Sir Percival Willoughby, for whom he acted as agent in Newfoundland, tells us that he returned to the Beothuk camp at Dildo Arm in the following year but found it deserted. He traded for furs elsewhere on the coast, again in the absence of the trade partners; although he could see Beothuk in the woods they would not come close. His men were willing to use force to catch them but Crout would not allow this, explaining in his letter to Willoughby that:

If the [the Beothuk] should be touched or taken parforce ther wilbe never no hoop of any good to be done by them// for the are bentt to revenge if the be any way wronged// the maye hear after do vs mishcheefe or ells the will do it vnto some fishermen// I do writt this because I do leave some in this place which haue a intentt to take some of them parforce which I haue told them allredy my openyon which if the do I will insure you it may be a great lost in tyme vnto the Company.

Crout also mentioned that he knew "wher is one [man?] to be procured which can speake ther langguad very well which hath bin five years a mongst them." Unfortunately, he gave no information who this person was, under what circumstances he had joined the Beothuk and what his experience had been.

Twenty six years later David Kirke from Ferryland recorded that in 1613 the Beothuk had assembled to meet with John Guy, but that the crew of a passing fishing vessel had shot at them. The Indians had immediately fled and had done much mischief in Trinity Bay ever since. This and other hostile encounters contributed to a steady deterioration of relations between Beothuk and whites. The situation was aggravated by the fact the Beothuk gradually lost access to traditional campsites on the Avalon and Burin peninsulas, including Trinity and Placentia bays.

Outright hostilities seem not have erupted until the 1720s when Skeffington and other English settlers expanded their salmon business from rivers in Bonavista Bay to those in Notre Dame Bay. The Beothuk responded with killings and a few years later they also shot English trappers who reciprocated in kind. These are the earliest recorded killings - in both cases it was the Beothuk who killed first. However, this does not exclude the possibility that Beothuk had been killed previously and that this deed had not been recorded.

The 1720s appear to have been a turning point in the history of the Beothuk because during this decade they also entered into serious conflict with the Micmac. The Micmac dislodged them from St. George's Bay and subsequently from portions of the Newfoundland west and south coast so that the Beothuk territory was once again substantially reduced.

For the next thirty years the records do not mention Beothuk until, in 1758, a Beothuk woman and child were killed and a 9 year old boy - known as June - was captured. This incident may have provoked the Beothuk's killing of shipmaster Scott and five of his men, who had built a fortified station in the Bay of Exploits. The first white settlers in Hall's Bay suffered the same fate. These acts of violence on both sides set into motion a vicious cycle of murder and revenge in which the Beothuk were usually the looser.

In 1768, when several stories of brutalities by the English came to the attention of Governor Hugh Palliser he sent Lieut. John Cartwright up the Exploits River to make peace with the Beothuk. Cartwright did not meet any of them - either they were still on the coast (it was August), or the Beothuk went into hiding to avoid the armed men. Cartwright estimated the Beothuk population at about 300 to 500 people; based on his report and his map of Beothuk dwellings on the Exploits River I suggest a population figure of about 350 in that year. In retrospect it seems that circumstances to conciliate the Beothuk were never again as favourable. The Beothuk's animosity became entrenched which would have made negotiations difficult while approaches by the English were based on the wrong premises so that their attempts at creating peace were probably doomed before they got under way.

Following Cartwright's unsuccessful expedition many acts of violence occurred. The Beothuk ambushed and killed fishermen and the English retaliated with harassment and bloody raids. The most hideous story on record is that of the "Peyton raid" in 1781. After three days of travel up the Exploits River John Peyton Sr and two others came to a Beothuk camp and fired into the mamateeks (the Beothuk term for wigwams). They then pursued the fleeing Beothuk. A man who was too wounded to run away defended himself with a trap on which he was working but Peyton wrested it away from him and beat him to death. Nine years later Peyton's men made a second raid which may have been less bloody.

This violence contrasts sharply with the experience of four French sailors, in 1787 (only six years after the Peyton raid) who had became shipwrecked near Shoe Cove, south of La Scie, and were taken in by a group of Beothuk. They were very fearful of the Indians but were actually treated well. Jean Conan, who recorded this event, said that a girl who would have been about fifteen years old, took a fancy to him and seduced him. He even considered staying with the Indians and lead a hunting life but when a French boat came to their rescue he changed his mind. The Beothuk seem not to have stopped them from leaving.

Eventually the harassment and murder of Beothuk became more widely known and several people agitated for their protection, one of whom was George Cartwright of Labrador fame. In 1784, Cartwright proposed the establishment of an Indian Reserve between Dog Bay and Cape St. John - the area to be off limits to the English except for making hay and picking berries in fall. Cartwright described some of the atrocities against the Indians that he had heard about and predicted that they would not survive unless government intervened on their behalf. He offered his services as an Indian agent, but the Colonial Office was not willing to act.

Capt. George Christopher Pulling favoured a peace mission. He wrote to authorities in Britain in 1792:

As I conceive the Bay or River of Exploits the best place to go to for this undertaking and to be enabled to remain there during the winter I judge it necessary to have a vessel of about 200 tons burthen and of an easy draught of water to sail from England in the spring of the year so as to be in Newfoundland by the time the drift ice leaves the coast ... It will in my opinion be proper to lay out about a hundred pounds in wearing apparel, trinkets, beads etc. to leave in their wigwams or to dispose in any other manner found necessary to convince them of our intentions ... I think it necessary to assure the salmon Catchers and Furriers who inhabit or frequent those parts of Newfoundland ... that no notice will be taken of any cruelties that they may already have been guilty of. But that every step will be taken to bring to Justice all those who shall in future wilfully injure or molest them.

To prove that protection of the Beothuk was urgently needed Pulling recorded many violent acts against them. Chief Justice Reeves used this evidence in his plea for a change in policy towards the Beothuk in the Parliamentary Enquiry into the State of Trade to Newfoundland, in 1793. But government officials were not prepared to take costly or unpopular measures on behalf of Newfoundland's native population and refused to act upon these appeals. Other proposals, for example by Governors Waldegrave and Pole, were equally ignored.

By the turn of the 18th century British government agencies and Newfoundland governors finally began to acknowledge that the situation of the native population was untenable and that this problem should be addressed. In order to avoid a costly mission to the Beothuk, governors offered a reward to anyone who would bring a live Beothuk to St. John's. The idea was to treat such a captive with kindness and send him or her back with presents. In 1803 William Cull succeeded in bringing a Beothuk woman to St. John's. But no proper plan of how to use her knowledge about her people existed and she was not asked how they could be approached to create better relations. Cull was simply told to bring her back with presents. But Cull was afraid of the Beothuk and left her in the forest. The woman later visited a community alone and it was thought that she never joined her people.

At that time the Beothuk had lost most of their traditional territory to the English and Micmac. They still resorted to the Exploits River and Red Indian Lake, to Gander Lake, and the lakes inland from New and Badger Bay, and to the coast between Cape Freels and Cape St. John. They also continued to venture to the Wadhams and Funk Island to collect birds and eggs.

A milestone event in the by now tense relations between Beothuk and English was Capt. David Buchan's meeting with them in January 1811. With a party of twenty-three well armed Marines and three local settlers as guides Buchan trekked up the Exploits River and, early one morning, came upon a Beothuk settlement at Red Indian Lake. The occupants were speechless but quickly rallied and offered their visitors a meal. Since John Guy's meeting with the Beothuk in Trinity Bay this was the first time that Beothuk and English had come together in a peaceful manner. Buchan made every effort to instill trust in the Beothuk and when he believed that he had succeeded he returned to his camp to fetch presents; he left two of his men behind. The Beothuk, suspecting that Buchan would come back with a larger force to take them prisoner, killed and beheaded the two hostages and fled to a sequestered part of the forest. Later they stuck these heads on poles and danced around them in victory feasts. At that time the entire tribe amounted to 72 people.

In the following two summers Buchan searched for Beothuk on the coast but was unsuccessful in catching up with them. Governor Duckworth fully supported his efforts and thereby set a new standard of concern and willingness to act in order to bring about better relations with the Beothuk.

His successors did not show the same degree of commitment, probably because political and economic crises overshadowed their anxiety about the treatment of the Beothuk. Instead of taking the initiative they simply reacted to circumstances as they arose. Thus, when John Peyton Jr. requested permission to pursue the Beothuk after they had cut the moorings of one of his boats - he said he wanted to retrieve his property and let the Beothuk know that he was willing to trade with them - Governor Hamilton encouraged him to take a captive but did not order him to refrain from violence. In the event Peyton captured Demasduit, also known as Mary March, who had just had a baby and was too weak to escape. Her baby died two days later. When her husband, chief Nonosabasut, came to her rescue, Peyton's party killed him. A witness later recorded that as he lay on the ice "his eyes flashed fire and he uttered a yell that made the woods echo." Peyton Jr was brought before the Grand Jury for the killing of Nonosabasut but was acquitted.

Demasduit was taken to St. John's and her visit caused a significant change in people's opinion about the Beothuk. An article, published on 27 May 1819 in the Mercantile Journal (by an anonymous writer) states:

On Sunday last, the curiosity of the good people of this town was gratified by an unexpected visit from one of the Red Indians, a young woman, about twenty years old. In consequence of the habitual persecution and cruelty which every well informed person in this island knows to have occurred, we could not but believe that the Red Indians were the most ferocious and intractable of the savage tribes. And it is with no less astonishment than pleasure that we find in the young woman which has been brought amongst us a gentle being, sensibly alive to every mild impression and delicate propriety of her sex. Is it not horrible to reflect that at the very moment, while we set down at our fire sides in peace and composure, many of her country men, in all probability as amiable and interesting as this young woman, are exposed to wanton cruelty ... We might remember that as far as priority possession can convey a right of property, the Red Indians have the better title to the Island.

This was the first public admission that the right of the Beothuk to the island and its resources was more legitimate than that of the English.

The principal citizens of St. John's formed a committee and decided to organize and finance a mission to bring Demasduit back to her people. But Governor Hamilton refused to relinquish control over the captive. After an unsuccessful attempt at having her brought to a Beothuk camp in Notre Dame Bay, Capt. Buchan was asked to take her back to Red Indian Lake. Demasduit, who suffered from consumption, unexpectedly died on 8 January 1820 onboard HMS Grasshopper. Buchan brought her remains to the settlement where she had been captured. He subsequently searched the country for Beothuk survivors for forty days but they had gone into hiding.

Three years later, in 1823, furriers found Shanawdithit, her mother and sister in a starved and weak condition and brought them to magistrate John Peyton Jr on Exploits Island. After a brief visit to St. John's the mother and older daughter died and Shanawdithit was taken into the Peyton household where she acted as a servant. John Peyton Jr., aged 30, had only recently married the seventeen-year-old Eleanor Mahaney who was now in charge of her. Shanawdithit seems to have been reasonably happy in the Peyton household and Bishop Inglis, who visited the Peytons in 1827, recorded that the children loved her and "would leave their mother to go to her."

In the same year William Eppes Cormack, who had walked across the island in search of Beothuk in 1822 (but had not met any), founded the Boeothick Institution to elicit general support for his scheme of making peace with the Beothuk. Many prominent citizens became members and contributed financially. When his renewed search for Beothuk as well as attempts by native guides at locating survivors were unsuccessful Cormack concluded that the tribe was on the verge of extinction.

He brought Shanawdithit to St. John's where she arrived on 20 September 1828. Shanawdithit related to him how her tribe had dwindled from 72 members in 1811 to only 12 or 13 at the time she was captured. She had little hope that they would survive since they were too few to keep up the caribou-fences; and being driven from the shore "their means of existence were completely cut off." She never related the tragic story of her people without tears.

Cormack had great hopes that Shanawdithit would become the instrument of establishing peaceful relations with her tribe but she persistently refused to accompany any of the expeditions saying that it was "an invariable religious principle laid down by her people to sacrifice to the munes [the spirits] of the victims slain by the whites and Micmacs any Boëothics who had been in contact with them." She also told Cormack that "From infancy all her people were taught to cherish animosity and revenge against all other people; it was enforced by narrating the innumerable wrongs inflicted on the Boëothics... and that if the Boëothics made peace and talked with them they would not after they died go to the happy island and hunt in the country of the good spirit."

This information would indicate that during Shanawdithit's life time the Beothuk were not prepared to forget the wrongs they had suffered and to make peace.

Cormack left Newfoundland in January 1829 and Shanawdithit was transferred to the home of Attorney General James Simms. She died of consumption in a St. John's hospital on the 6th of June 1829.

Within a few years of Shanawdithit's death public opinion about the Beothuk had shifted markedly. The opening paragraph of an article in the Royal Gazette, published in 1832, states that the Beothuk had been dispossessed of their land and resources unlawfully and without regard to their rights or their ability to survive - that the fate of the Beothuk was distressing and a perplexing page in Newfoundland's history - and that the circumstances of their demise were "repulsive."

Thus, in the course of just over three centuries attitudes towards the Beothuk have come full circle. In the 1600s they were thought to be harmless and potentially useful as trade partners; in the early 1700s, when hostilities had started, they were said to be dangerous and sub-human and were persecuted and murdered. From the late 1700s onwards at least some people acknowledged that the Beothuk had a right to the land and resources and should be protected; once the Beothuk had vanished from the island Newfoundlanders considered them victims of prejudice and cruelty.

While I agree that both prejudice and cruelty were at work I suggest that the Beothuk had not been powerless victims who had allowed circumstances to rule their lives. In my view they were a heroic people who valued their independence and traditions above all and were prepared to face hostilities rather than be subjugated.

Ingeborg Marshall on behalf of the Beothuk Institute.

2- The Disappearance of the Beothuks

The arrival of European settlers on Beothuk territory, as well as wars with the Micmacs, created conflicts that led to the disappearance of this aboriginal people.

HISTORICAL CONTEXT
There are several sources that describe the relationships between the Europeans who came to North America and most Iroquois and Algonquinduring colonization. There are fewer sources of information on the Beothuks, one of the first aboriginal tribes to meet the Europeans and who no longer exist today. Semi-nomadic, living as hunters-gatherers, the Beothuks lived in small, independent groups. Before the Europeans arrived, the Beothuks lived near the coast of Newfoundland [see Map 1: map of Newfoundland] during the summer to make the most of abundant fishing resources, and moved inland to their hunting grounds in the winter. The Europeans they met early in the 16th century were also fishermen using the area in-season; they set up fishing stations and wharves. Over time, the number of fishermen grew and they stayed in the area for increasingly longer periods.

SUMMARY OF THE CONFLICT
The first meeting of the Europeans and the Beothuks was at the turn of the 16th century, when the Beothuks were to be rounded up to be shipped to Europe. The Beothuks had not given a warm welcome to the European fishermen; they did not like seeing these strangers occupying their fishing grounds each summer and destroying the surrounding forests. Nor did the Europeans like the Beothuks , because they made frequent raids to steal from the Europeans' fishing stations. After a time, when fishing communities had settled permanently in Newfoundland, a succession of European governors (including John Guy) attempted to establish friendly relations with the Beothuks, but in vain. Following these unsuccessful, and even disastrous attempts, the Beothuks, in 1616, attacked French soldiers who had been sent to Newfoundland to fight them. Driven from the coast and from the south by the Europeans, the Beothuks were forced to confront their enemies, the Micmacs. Despite Royal edictsforbidding the killing of Beothuks, the massacres continued and the tribe dwindled. However, it was more than the massacre and capture of the Beothuks that led to the disappearance of this aboriginal people. Other elements played a crucial role in their disappearance: new diseases brought over from Europe, loss of access to the bays where they once fished, as well as battles between the Micmac and Beothuk nations. It was only shortly after the death of Shanawdihit (the last known Beothuk woman) that the Europeans realized that the Beothuks were on the brink of extinction. By the time William Epps Cormack founded the "Beothuk Institution," he discovered it was already too late and that the traditional way of life of the Beothuks had been destroyed forever.

Concepts
Iroquois
The Iroquois nation is one of the leading Native societies in eastern North America. This sedentary society grew crops and was matrilineal. The Hurons and Iroquois were both part of the Iroquois nation.

Algonquin
The Algonquin nation is one of the leading Native societies in eastern North America. This nomadic society relied primarily on hunting for food and was patrilineal.

Colonization
Expansion of a country by occupying and exploiting foreign lands.

Beothuks
The Beothuk nation was an aboriginal society in Eastern North America. They were semi-nomadic, living primarily from hunting, fishing, and gathering. The nation became extinct with the death of Shanawdihit in 1829.

Micmac
The Micmac nation is part of the Algonquin family. They were loyal allies of the French against British colonies.

Royal edict
Law proclaimed by the King concerning a particular subject.

Extinction
Disappearance of an entire population.Type your paragraph here.

Good Evening Brothers and Sisters of world: 
On the topic of Neskantaga First Nations getting the water issues fixed, I can not and will not take credit for it, I believe it was probably in the works and the timing of the announcement was just luck. Mr. Trudeau is trying to make good on his election promises, But I have little faith in government for the long haul. 
One must clean up your our back yard, before moving in new neighbors. (Get what I am referring to without saying it). 
I have one Tribe to research and one war tonight: 
Inuinnait (Copper Inuit)
Social organization was based on kinship and on various types of formal partnership, and affiliation between individuals tended to be more a matter of personal choice than is usually found among other Inuit groups.
The Inuinnait, also known as the Copper Inuit because of their extensive use of artifacts made from the native copper deposits of the region, originally occupied Banks and Victoria islands and the adjacent mainland region of the central Canadian Arctic. In the early 20th century, they numbered about 800 people, divided into numerous regional bands averaging about 50. Several bands would combine during the winter when engaged in hunting seals. At this season they lived in large snow-house communities on the sea ice, moving to new areas as the local seal population was hunted out. In the spring these communities broke up and the bands moved to specific areas on the coasts, from where they travelled into the interior in search of caribou, muskoxen and fish. Throughout the summer they moved about the interior within defined territories, in small groups of one or a few families, living in skin tents. Caribou hunting was intensified in late summer, and people began to gather at points along the coast where the women prepared winter clothing.
Social organization was based on kinship and on various types of formal partnership, and affiliation between individuals tended to be more a matter of personal choice than is usually found among other Inuit groups. Religion was based on shamanism, with the shaman charged primarily with curing the sick and providing good hunting. Religion, language and most other aspects of the culture were similar to those of other central arctic Inuit groups, of whom the Inuinnait were the most westerly.
Archaeology indicates that the Inuinnait are descended from a group of Thule Culture people who moved into the area shortly after 1000 AD and adapted their maritime way of life to seal and caribou resources. During the cooler climate of the Little Ice Age of the 17th to 19th centuries, these people abandoned the permanent winter houses and other elements of their Thule ancestors. Traditionally, hunting weapons including arrows, harpoon and spear heads, and tools such as knife blades and chisels were formed from copper and used for personal use and for trade with other nations. Greater nomadism and increasing exposure and involvement with imported European technology gave rise to the distinctive culture of the historic Inuinnait. Regular European contact began during the early 20th century, involving the Inuinnait in a trapping economy. However, in addition to trade, the European contact brought diseases including influenza, typhoid and smallpox epidemics that devastated the Inuinnait population.
Most Inuinnait now live in the villages of Sachs Harbour, Ulukhaktok (also known as Uluqsaqtuua), which means "where there is copper" in Inuktitut; Kugluktuk; Bathurst Inlet; and Cambridge Bay. In 1984 the communities of Sachs Harbour and Holman [Ulukhaktok] were included in the Inuvialuit Land Claims Agreement. Other settlements were negotiated as part of the creation of Nunavut.
See also Aboriginal People: Arctic.Type your paragraph here.

To my family : As my journey takes me closer to the creator, my needs grow less and less. The biggest need of someone whom is lost is : 
af·firm·a·tion
ˌafərˈmāSH(ə)n/
noun
1.
the action or process of affirming something or being affirmed.
"he nodded in affirmation"
synonyms: declaration, statement, assertion, proclamation, pronouncement, attestation; More
2.
emotional support or encouragement.
"the lack of one or both parents' affirmation leaves some children emotionally crippled"

I no longer need affirmation of who I am, I no longer need the acceptance of all people, I just need the one thing. 
To openly communicate with the Creator. Try it sometime , 
As my spiritual connections grow, I drive deeper into the our First Nations past , present, and futures. 
I may have no Indian name,or tribe, but I am Brenda a Metis , to tell the the Metis story I must tell all First Nations stories.
Love and blessings Brenda

Good Evening Family and Friends

Tonight I so blessed, surrounded by his all my aboriginal artifacts, this is the of my house I call

Home. I am at peace in this room, doing my article tonight.

Tonight we show case the Tutchone tribe. Enjoy and as always Love Brenda

 

The First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun represents the most northerly community of the Northern Tutchone language and culture group. In the Northern Tutchone language the Stewart River is called Na Cho Nyak, meaning Big River. The First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun resides in the community of Mayo, Yukon, and a town that had its beginnings during the boom years of the silver mines in the area. First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun’s Traditional Territory covers 162,456 square kilometers of land, that being 131,599 km2 in the Yukon and 30,857 km2 in NWT.

Historically, the First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun lived and trapped throughout the area surrounding Mayo. In early times, the ancestors of the First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun lived off the land, using the rich supply of game animals, fish, birds, and numerous plants for food and for medicinal purposes. Their lifestyle required traveling throughout the First Nation’s traditional territory at various times of the year, for hunting, fishing, and gathering food to survive.

The First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun is culturally affiliated with the Northern Tutchone people of the Pelly Selkirk, and the Carmacks Little Salmon First Nations. These three First Nations form the Northern Tutchone Tribal Council, an organization which deals with matters and issues that affect all three First Nations. The First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun represents the most northerly community of the Northern Tutchone language and culture group. Some of the members of the First nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun trace their ancestry to the Gwitchin people of Northern Yukon and the Mackenzie people of Eastern Yukon.

For many years, the First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun traded with the Tlingits from the Pacific coast. During these times, the Northern Tutchone dictated the terms of exchanges with their foreign trading partners. The oral history of the Na-Cho Nyak Dun also reveals early contact and trade relationships with explorers and traders coming into the area.

The 19th century brought dramatic changes to Yukon First Nations. The First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun readily accepted these new challenges. In 1915, Reverend Julius Kendi arrived at Fraser Falls, where many people of the First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun were drying fish. Reverend Kendi was a Native catechist of the Anglican faith, from the Peel River district. Reverend Kendi asked the First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun to decide on a site where they could establish their own Village. The decision was made to locate two miles below the Village of Mayo on the banks of the Stewart River. Albert Tom was the traditional chief at Village on the Stewart River for 55 years. The area is now known as “The Old Village”.

The First Nation has been very active in the Land Claims movement since its beginnings in 1973. Members of the First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun were instrumental in helping to guide the Council of Yukon First Nations and its member First Nations during the critical times ending in the 1984 breakdown of negotiations and rejection of the agreements. Two of the crucial issues were the absence of self-government and the extinguishment of aboriginal rights. These two important elements, self-government and the retention of aboriginal rights on settlement lands, were eventually included in the 1993 agreements.

The First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun today has a membership of 602. As a self-governing First Nation, the First Nation of Na-Cho Nyak Dun has the ability to make laws on behalf of their citizens and their lands. Under the land claims agreement, the First Nation now owns 4,739.68 square kilometers of settlement lands and has received in compensation $14,554,654 for which a trust has been established. The First Nation has been actively involved in affairs of the Mayo community, attempting to promote a better, healthier lifestyle for its future generations and a strong economy based on its rich natural resources.

First Nations

The Champagne and Aishihik First Nations (CAFN) is a self-governing First Nation with Traditional Territories in the Yukon Territory and Northern British Columbia.  The First Nation has an administrative centre in Haines Junction but also operates an office in Whitehorse.

Traditionally, the town site of Haines Junction was a stopover place for people on the move to other areas; its traditional name is Dakwakada or "high cache." The First Nations’ traditional territory is the southwestern Yukon and northwestern British Columbia, and its tribal council affiliation is the Southern Tutchone Tribal Council.

The Champagne and Aishihik First Nations' traditional territory is the home of the Southern Tutchone people of the southern Yukon region. There are many villages within this area, such as Champagne, Klukshu, Aishihik and Hootchi. The Southern Tutchone language is part of the Athapaskan language family.

The Southern Tutchone people lived a nomadic way of life and relied on the land and its resources for survival. Salmon remains one of the rich resources found in this area. Many Southern Tutchone people harvest salmon at the village of Klukshu and at Shäwshe (Dalton Post).

Along with three other First Nations, CAFN signed their land claims and self-government agreements in 1993. The agreements came into effect in 1995.

Under their land claims agreement, CAFN has a role in the management of resources in their traditional territory; for example, they are a full partner on the Kluane National Park Management Board and the Alsek Renewable Resources Council.

The First Nations has a strong Heritage Department, which focuses on archaeology, documentation of oral traditions, and promoting song, dance and the arts of the Southern Tutchone culture.Type your paragraph here.

The War Vikings Vs Mik maq , Beothuk
Together with the Beothuk on Newfoundland, the Micmac were probably the first Native Americans to have regular contact with Europeans. This may have occurred as early as the 11th century with the early Viking settlements on the coast of North America, or perhaps with Basque fishermen who visited the Grand Banks before Columbus' voyage in 1492 but kept quiet about where they were catching all their fish. The first known contact was made in 1497 by John Cabot who took three Micmac with him when he returned to England. The Micmac may not have appreciated this, since Cabot disappeared in the same area during his second voyage a few years later. Contact between Micmac and Europeans became routine immediately afterwards. Beginning in 1501, Basque, Spanish, French, British, and Irish fishing boats visited the Grand Banks every summer. By 1519 the fishermen were coming ashore to dry their catch, and trade began, mainly for furs. The fishermen found the Micmac friendly and eager to trade ...almost too eager.

By 1534 the Micmac had grown so accustomed to trading with the Europeans that when the French explorer, Jacques Cartier, dropped anchor in Chaleur Bay, he suddenly found himself surrounded by hundreds of Micmac in canoes waving beaver skins. Cartier became alarmed and fired cannon over their heads. The Micmac quickly retreated, but 300 returned the following day, and Cartier had calmed down enough by then to begin trading with them. Obviously, Cartier was not the first European to "discover" the Micmac, but France would use his explorations as the basis for their claim to the Canadian Maritimes. During his visit to the region in 1541, Cartier tried, but failed, to establish a permanent settlement on the St. Lawrence River. The French still had much to learn about survival in a wilderness. By 1578 over 400 European fishing boats were gathering every summer off the coast. The Basque established a whaling station during 1527, but no one attempted to stay through a winter. Although there were no permanent settlements at the time, European diseases had begun to decimate the Micmac population. An unknown epidemic struck the region sometime between 1564 and 1570 followed by typhus in 1586.

Sir Humphrey Gilbert and the British attempted to settle Newfoundland in 1583 but failed for the same reasons as Cartier effort in 1541, starvation and bitter cold. However, the result of these failures was that both Britain (Cabot and Gilbert) and France (Verrazano and Cartier) laid claim to the Maritimes by right of discovery. Meanwhile, Spain claimed all of North America and had the military power to discourage permanent settlements by other Europeans. It could not, however, prevent trade. Furs gotten from the Micmac created a new fashion in France of beaver hats.This quickly spread through Europe. The price of fur rose, and the French quickly saw a chance to make a lot of money. Organized fur trade began in 1581 as a private venture of Norman and Breton merchants. Although it happened on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, the destruction of the Spanish Armada off the coast of England in 1588 was an important event in Native American history. Afterwards, Spanish naval power could no longer keep other Europeans out of the New World.

That same year, Henry III of France granted a monopoly in the North American fur trade to a consortium of French merchants to secure his hold on the French throne. Henry was assassinated the following year and got very little out of this bargain, but the French merchants became rich. Permanent outposts were not built until 1604, but in the interim French trading ships made regular trips to the Micmac homeland for fur. The demand overwhelmed the resources available to the Micmac, but they solved this by becoming middlemen for the Algonquin tribes of the interior, an economic opportunity which they apparently protected through warfare. Already formidable warriors, the metal weapons received through trade with the French gave the Micmac and their allies an enormous advantage over their enemies ...a possible explanation for the sudden disappearance of the Iroquian-speaking peoples Cartier had met on the St. Lawrence River during 1534 and their replacement by Algonquin-speaking Montagnais and Algonkin sometime before 1608.

In 1604 Samuel de Champlain and Pierre De Monts established the first French settlement in North America at the mouth of the St. Croix River, the current boundary between Maine and the New Brunswick. Although it was close to both the Abenaki and Maliseet villages, the location proved a terrible choice, and the French stayed there only one winter. Frozen and flooded, half the party died of scurvy, and Champlain and the survivors moved across the Bay of Fundy to the Nova Scotia's Annapolis Basin in 1605. The new site became known as Port Royal, and was located in Micmac territory. Although this gave the Micmac a definite advantage, the French continued to trade with the Abenaki, particularly the Penobscot. The Penobscot prospered as a result, and their sachem Bashaba was able to form a powerful alliance which threatened the Micmac across the bay. The rivalry over the French fur trade aggravated earlier animosities and by 1607 escalated into the Tarrateen War which broke out between the Bashaba's Penobscot confederacy and the Micmac and their Maliseet allies.

The fighting continued for eight years. Although the French were not pleased with the warfare, they managed to trade with both sides. Meanwhile, the first Jesuit missionaries had arrived at Port Royal in 1610 and met immediate success working among the Micmac. Their first important convert was the sachem Membertou who was baptized with his entire family in 1610. Unfortunately, conversion did not protect him from epidemic, and Membertou died the following year. In spite of their war with the Micmac, the French also built a mission and trading post for the Penobscot at St Sauver Mont-Deserts de Pentagoet (Bar Harbor, Maine) in 1613. It had a brief existence, however, and was destroyed by an English raid from Jamestown, Virginia later that year. In 1615 the Micmac succeeded in killing Bashaba and in so doing won the war. During the next two years, Micmac warriors swept south through the Abenaki villages in Maine in a wave of destruction reaching as far south as Massachusetts.

Here they ran headlong into the devastating epidemics which were sweeping through the tribes in southern New England. The Micmac went home but took the sickness with them. The worst year in the Canadian Maritimes was 1617, and before the epidemic had run its course, it had killed almost three-quarters of the native population. There were not enough survivors to bury the dead, much less wage war, and the Tarrateen War was ended, not by battle, but disease. By 1620 only 4,000 Micmac remained from an original population of 20,000. Meanwhile, Champlain and the other French had discovered a more lucrative source of fur in the St. Lawrence Valley in 1608 and abandoned most of their posts in Acadia and Maine in favor of Quebec. By 1610 the French presence in the Maritimes was limited to a tiny settlement at Port Royal and single trading post on Penobscot River in Maine. While the fur trade had quickly bypassed the Micmac, the long struggle between Britain and France for control of their homeland was just beginning.

British settlement in North America had begun in Virginia at Jamestown in 1607, but as a result of Cabot's voyage in 1497, Britain claimed the entire eastern seaboard north of the Carolinas (including Canada). Because of this, the Plymouth Company attempted to start a colony at the mouth of the Kennebec River in Maine during 1607. This failed in less than a year, because, according to the French, the British abused the Abenaki living nearby. The British, however, were serious about enforcing their claims and in 1613 made their first attempt to remove the French from "their territory." In the fall, a naval expedition from Jamestown destroyed both the Mont-Deserts mission and Port Royal. French and Jesuits prisoners were set adrift in a small boat to die but were able to reach the Micmac who fed them that winter and saved their lives. Micmac captured in the raid were not so fortunate. The British sold them as slaves.

Already strongly attached to the French through religion and marriage, the incident served to convince the Micmac the British were enemies. By 1616 the French had rebuilt Port Royal and opened new posts at Cape Sable and the St. John and Penobscot Rivers. The British returned in 1619 and burned Port Royal for a second time, and the French rebuilt again. After settlement of Massachusetts in 1620, the British got serious. King James I of Britain (formerly James VI of Scotland) gave Acadia to Sir William Alexander who renamed it New Scotland, or Nova Scotia. Taking advantage of a European war between Britain and France, a British fleet under David Lewis and Thomas Kirke left Boston in 1628 for Port Royal. Kirke trapped and defeated a French fleet there and then moved into the St. Lawrence to capture Quebec. The British held Canada for the next four years with disastrous consequences for the Huron and Algonkin (French allies) who were fighting the Iroquois (Dutch allies).

In 1629 Alexander attempted to found a British colony in Acadia with Scottish settlers. They established themselves at Charles fort (Scotch Fort) five miles south of then-abandoned Port Royal. However, in 1632 the Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye restored Quebec and Maritimes to France. This date marks the beginning the real Anglo-French struggle for North America, since the French had also decided to become serious. Actually, it began in 1627 when Cardinal Richelieu, the powerful chief minister of France under Louis XIII, had encouraged the formation of the Company of New France (Compagnie de la Nouvelle-France), popularly known as the Company of the Hundred Associates (Compagnie des Cent-Associés) for the purpose of settling Canada. The war with Britain delayed things until 1632, but afterwards, the French presence in North America increased dramatically. Richelieu sent his cousin, Isaac de Razilly, as governor with 300 men (and some women) to colonize Acadia.

The French reoccupied Port Royal, expelled the Scots, and burned the British trading post on the Penobscot River. In 1633 they attacked the remaining British post at Machias, Maine and warned Boston traders to remain south of the Kennebec River. Rather than bringing about a confrontation with the Micmac, the new French settlement was mutually beneficial and drew them even closer. The Acadians concentrated in the vicinity of Port Royal and Grand Pre. They built their homes near the bay rather than clearing away forest land like the English, and as a result, their presence did little to disturb the Micmac's lifestyle, and during the 160 years the French were in Acadia, they never needed a single treaty to remain at the peace with them. It would seem that the French had more trouble getting along with each other. During the 1640s, rival fur traders Charles La Tour and Charles D'Ulnay fought for control of Acadia in what amounted to a French civil war. While La Tour was in Boston buying supplies from the British, his rival attacked his trading post. Most of La Tour's men were hanged, and his wife Marie died in prison three weeks later. La Tour was forced to remain in hiding until D'Ulnay was drowned in a canoe accident.

Acadia, however, was not the only place the French and British were contesting. Both claimed Newfoundland. Although European fishermen had shared the island since the 1500s, Britain claimed it outright, while France did likewise as a result Cartier's explorations. As a result, both French and British settlements developed on the island: the British at Conception Bay in 1610 and the French at Placentia during the 1650s. Micmac frequently visited Newfoundland to take advantage of the extraordinary fishing, and their relations with the resident Beothuk had usually been friendly. In 1613, however, a Beothuk uprising had killed 30 French fishermen. To protect themselves from further incidents, the French encouraged the Micmac to settle permanently around St. George Bay in southwestern Newfoundland. This blocked Beothuk access to the coast, and one thing led to another. When fighting broke out, the French provided the Micmac with firearms and, according to some accounts, paid bounties for Beothuk scalps. The Micmac deny this and blame the story on the British. Hard evidence is lacking to support scalp bounties, but the Micmac did drive the Beothuk into the interior with its limited resources. By 1827 the Beothuk were extinct.

By 1643 the growing French population in Acadia was giving Puritans in New England nightmares about a French fleet sailing into Boston harbor and burning the town. They solved their fears by attacking the French first. In 1654 Robert Sedgwick's fleet from Boston captured Port Royal and the other French settlements on the Bay of Fundy. The British held Acadia for thirteen years this time until it was returned to France by the Treaty of Breda (1667). While the British and French traded places in Acadia and Maine, Micmac loyalty to the French never wavered, but they only rarely were involved in the fighting. This changed in 1675 when the Abenaki were drawn into the King Philip's War with the New England colonists. By the end of 1676, Philip and most of his followers were dead, and his uprising crushed. Unfortunately, the war did not end here for the Abenaki. Thousands of refugees, filled with hatred for the British, fled north and joined the Abenaki, and the King Philip's War continued, with brief interruptions, for more than 80 years.

To fight the British and their Mohawk allies, the Abenaki organized into a confederacy. Its membership soon expanded to include the Maritimes tribes: Maliseet, Passamaquoddy, and Micmac. The French both encouraged this alliance and supplied it with arms to block British expansion northward from New England and to protect Quebec and Acadia from British invasion in case of war. With the outbreak of the King William's War (1688-97) between Britain and France, the Abenaki Confederation did exactly that. Throughout the war, the British never made a serious attempt to take Acadia. An expedition under William Philips sacked Port Royal in 1690 and took the French governor prisoner, but the French recaptured it in 1692. Offensively, Abenaki and Micmac raids terrorized New England throughout the war and by 1695 had forced the abandonment of almost all of its frontier settlements. Britain and France ended their war in 1697, but it took two more years to stop the fighting between New England and the Abenaki. Even then, it was only a brief truce.

Raids resumed with the Queen Anne's War (1701-13), but this time they were not enough to keep the British out of the Maritimes. The French population in Acadia had grown to 3,000, but New England colonists in New England outnumbered them almost fifteen to one. After two attempts to take the French fort on the Penobscot River failed in 1701, New England went on the defensive. In February, 1704 an Abenaki raid from Canada destroyed Deerfield, Massachusetts, and the British changed strategy. With the coming of warmer weather, they finally captured the French forts on the Penobscot River and Passamaquoddy Bay, but were repulsed at Port Royal in July. Port Royal defended itself against two more assaults during 1707 but, after a long siege by General Francis Nicholson, surrendered in October, 1710. The British kept it for the rest of the war by using Mohawk warriors to track Micmac and Abenaki raiders. In 1713 the Treaty of Utrecht gave Nova Scotia (Acadia) and Newfoundland to Great Britain.

Having seen Acadia change hands many times, no one except the British government believed this would be permanent. French settlers from Newfoundland moved to Cape Breton Island and during 1720 built the massive fortress at Louisbourgh which dominated the entire area, and the Acadian French refused to sign an oath of loyalty to Great Britain. Although the Micmac, Maliseet, and Abenaki had signed a peace treaty with New England at Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1713, they still refused to recognize British authority in Acadia. Acadia had become Nova Scotia, but it was British in name only. Trouble was immediate. The first concern of the British was to secure their fishing rights, so they were content to allow the French maintain their trade with the Micmac to keep everyone happy. This was a mistake. The French not only continued trade (upon which the Micmac had become dependent) but also provided large annual gifts to the Micmac keep their friendship and allegiance.

There was no way the British could compete with this, since their government in London provided only limited funds for gifts for British allies - something the Micmac definitely were not. To maintain peace, the first British governors of Nova Scotia were often forced in desperation to pay for gifts to Micmac out their own pockets. Even then, the Micmac perception of the British was that they were stingy. Meanwhile, the French population in Acadia avoided every attempt to get them to take a loyalty oath and was patiently waiting for their return to France. This was considered inevitable just as long as British colonists did not settle in the area. However, that was exactly what was happening. Trouble began in 1717 as settlement from New England began to expand northward into Abenaki lands along the coast of Maine as well as the Connecticut Valley of southern Vermont and New Hampshire. The French fought back through their Jesuit missionaries (most notably Father Sebastian Rasles), who encouraged the Abenaki and Micmac to resist the encroachment with violence if necessary.

Conferences between New England and Abenaki representatives during 1717 and 1719 failed to reach any agreement. Since the Micmac, Maliseet, and Passamaquoddy were part of the Abenaki confederation, tension was also building in the Canadian Maritimes with the very real possibility of a major uprising. Trying to keep the Micmac at peace in 1721, the British governor of Nova Scotia called a meeting with Micmac at Annapolis Royal (formerly Port Royal) at which promises were made for increased trade and larger annual presents. The Micmac, however, were not satisfied by just promises and remained restless keeping the British garrisons in Nova Scotia on constant alert. After several violent confrontations on the New England frontier in 1722, Massachusetts declared war on the Abenaki. Dummer's War (English-Indian War, Räle War, or Father Rasles' War) was New England's last major Indian war and lasted until 1725. A separate, but related, conflict (Grey Lock's War, Lovewell's War) with the Sokoki in western New England continued for another two years.

In 1724 a colonial army attacked and burned Norridgewock on Maine's upper Kennebec River. Not only was the Jesuit priest Sebastian Rasles killed in this battle, but the British mutilated his corpse. From the onset of the fighting, the French in Quebec were tempted to intervene on behalf of the Abenaki, but they chose to remain neutral because the British were threatening to deport the French population. For the same reason, the Acadian French had discouraged the Micmac from joining the Abenaki in the conflict. However, this changed with the brutal circumstances of Rasles' death. The Acadians were furious, and the killing of one of their priests by New England militia brought them to the point of open rebellion in Acadia. No longer restrained, 50 Micmac warriors retaliated and attacked the British garrison at Annapolis Royal killing two soldiers and wounding 12 others. The British, with some justification, felt the Acadians were responsible.

The Abenaki suffered another defeat at the hands of New England the following spring after which resistance ended. In December, 1725 they agreed to a peace with Massachusetts finally ratified at Falmouth the following August. The Micmac and Maliseet also signed a treaty at Boston agreeing to peace and acknowledging British authority over their homeland. This officially ended Dummer's War, but French and Micmac resistance to the British in Acadia was just no longer passive. As long as the British garrisons confined themselves to their forts, there was little trouble, but travel into Micmac controlled areas of the interior was dangerous. The Acadians still refused to take any oath of allegiance to Great Britain, and in 1732 a large group left Nova Scotia for New Brunswick and settled at Ste. Anne's Point on the St. Johns River to escape the British pressure to do so. Meanwhile, French priests and traders were active among the Micmac. Annual presents, trade goods, and firearms arrived every year from Ille Royal, and British protests demanding the French stop this were ignored. New British forts and restrictions placed on the movement of French priests only added to the worsening situation.

In 1744 Britain and France went to war again - this time in a dispute over who should sit on the throne of Austria. The War of Austrian Sucession spread from Europe to North America where it was known as the King George's War (1744-48). All the smoldering resentment of the last 29 years of British occupation erupted throughout the Canadian Maritimes, and the Micmac and Maliseet attacked the British outposts. Massachusetts declared war in 1744 against the Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, and St. John Indians (actually the Maliseet and Micmac). The Penobscot, Kennebec, and Passamaquoddy from Maine also joined the fighting, and the British were overwhelmed. The French immediately tried and failed to retake Port Royal in 1744. They tried again the following year, but this, as well as an attack on Cape Breton Island, was also repulsed. Even so, by the end of 1745 the British were besieged inside their forts. Their only military unit still able to operate effectively was the solitary Ranger Company of John Gorham, a group of few white frontiersmen and 50 Mohawk warriors recruited by Sir William Johnson in New York.

The French Acadians were officially neutral but so open in their sympathy for the Micmac that Governor Shirley of Massachusetts in 1746 demanded their removal from Nova Scotia. This easily could have happened if a 4,000 man combined British and colonial army had not captured Louisbourgh in June, 1745. The capture of Louisbourgh was the major British victory during the war. It not only removed the immediate threat of invasion to Nova Scotia but permitted the British naval blockade of Canada which eventually brought the French to their knees. However, it did not stop Micmac and Abenaki attacks which continued throughout Nova Scotia and northern Maine until a year after the end of the war. Between 1747 and 1749, there was a lot of bushwhacking and ambush in the Maritimes which kept Gorham's Rangers very busy. Even though crippled by the loss of Louisbourgh, the French were still dangerous, and an attack in February, 1747 wiped out the British garrison at Grand Pre (Grand Pre Massacre). During 1748, however, the French ended their support for the Micmac on Cape Breton which ended most of the fighting in that vicinity.

The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle settled the problem France and Britain had with each other about the Austrian throne, but neither side was willing to concede control of the Canadian Maritimes. To the total outrage and disgust of the New England colonies, the treaty returned the fortress at Louisbourgh to the French. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 had failed to define the border between Nova Scotia and Quebec. Taking advantage of this and their alliance with the Abenaki and Maliseet, the French began in 1749 to re-occupy the St. John Valley in New Brunswick. At the same time, the British decided the solution to control of the Maritimes was to populate it with British colonists. In June, 1749 Colonel Edward Cornwallis arrived as the new governor of Nova Scotia accompanied by 2,500 new settlers. After founding the city of Halifax, he made peace overtures to the Abenaki and Maliseet using the ranger captain John Gorham as his emissary. The result was a peace treaty signed at Halifax with the Maliseet and Abenaki, but the strength of this agreement was indicated by the fact the Maliseet celebrated the signing with a war dance on the decks of Cornwallis' ship.

The Micmac did not sign any peace agreement with the British that year. They had suffered a severe smallpox epidemic during 1747, and the French had accused the British of deliberate infection. Whether true or not, the Micmac believed the French and were so angry about this, they refused to make peace. In this decision, they had the full support of a French priest, Father Le Loutre (the new Rasles). Settlements at Chebucto and Canso were attacked during the summer of 1749. Especially galling to the British was the capture of an army detachment at Canso which later had to be ransomed from the French commandant at Louisbourgh. The British refused to declare war reasoning that, since the Micmac were supposed to have submitted to British authority in Nova Scotia at the Treaty of Boston (1726), they could be treated as rebels, not enemies. In other words, no rules of civilized warfare. Offering £10 for every Micmac scalp or prisoner, Cornwallis dispatched the Cobb expedition with 100 men to hunt down and kill Micmac. In addition to the usual £10 for scalps or prisoner, Cornwallis offered an additional incentive of £100 for the capture of Le Loutre.

Cobb's expedition destroyed just about everything they found, but Micmac resistance only stiffened. By 1750 the price of scalps was raised from £10 to £50 which provided incentive for the formation of two additional ranger companies under Captains William Clapham and Francis Bartelo. During 1751 the fighting continued across the Chigneto Isthmus of Nova Scotia, but by summer Cornwallis ordered all ranger companies (except Gorham's) to disband. Too many strange scalps had been turned in for payment, including several which bore unmistakable signs of European origin. The French were still providing arms to the Chignecto Micmac - who were still dangerous and under the hostile influence of Father Le Loutre - but sending hired killers after them was never going to solve the situation. Cornwallis' decision ultimately proved correct, and in November, 1752 at Halifax, the Micmac signed a peace treaty with the British.

Unfortunately, the peace lasted less than two years and ended with the outbreak of the French and Indian War (1755-63). The last French/British confrontation for control of North America, the war began in 1755 with a disaster for the British when Braddock's army was destroyed near Fort Duquesne in western Pennsylvania. Micmac raids against isolated settlements in Nova Scotia began that first year with British fishing boats as particular target. At the same time, the Penobscot raided frontier settlements in Maine. As French victories mounted, the British decided they would no longer treat the French in Acadia as neutrals. Governor Cornwallis had threatened deportation many times if they did not take the oath, and in response, approximately one-third of the Acadians moved to New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and French territory during 1752. But in the end, Cornwallis never followed through with his threats. However, he was replaced as governor in 1754 by Charles Lawrence.

Lawrence was serious, and the expulsion carried out in 1755 under his administration was quick, efficient and cruel. 7,000 Acadians who had refused the oath were imprisoned, stripped of their possessions, and deported. Many ended up in British prisons for the duration of the war. The others were dispersed throughout the English colonies in the south where, for obvious reasons, they were very unwelcome guests. More than one-third were lost at sea or died disease. Many years would pass before many of the deportees would relocate to Spanish Louisiana where they would become known as the Cajuns. Most of their land was taken over by British settlers who soon arrived from New England. However, not all of the Acadians left quietly, and the British were never able to capture all of them. Many escaped into the forests and fought a guerilla war beside the Micmac. One such Acadian was Joseph Broussard who continued to fight the British in New Brunswick until finally captured in 1758.

For the Micmac, the deportation was almost as traumatic as it was for the French. Roman Catholic and intermarried with the French for several generations, many Acadians were close relatives, and it is difficult to imagine anything the British could have done which would have enraged the Micmac more. They attacked the British army forts and the new settlements of the New England colonists the forts were intended to protect. By 1756 the British in Nova Scotia were once again paying bounties for Micmac scalps, this time £30 for warrior scalps and £25 for women and children prisoners. The French in Quebec welcomed the warfare in Nova Scotia, and Governor Duquesne of Canada sent secret instructions to Father Le Loutre urging him to keep the Micmac at war and prevent them from making a separate peace with the British. The British fought back with a series of small forts and ranger companies, but Maliseet and Micmac warriors kept them mostly confined to the immediate vicinity of their forts.

Slowly, the British were able to overcome the initial French successes. Fort Beausejour in New Brunswick was captured in 1757, and in 1758 the British army swept through the remaining Acadian settlements on the St. John River destroying everything in their path. French resistance slackened after the fall of Louisbourgh in 1758 which opened the way for a British invasion of the St. Lawrence Valley. With the capture of Quebec in September, the war in North America was mostly over, although a peace was not actually signed until 1763. Montreal held out until 1760, but an attempt by the French fleet that year to break the British blockade and bring reinforcements to Quebec ended in defeat at a naval battle fought near Restigouche which involved Micmac and Acadians. After years of fighting, peace did not settle over the region uniformly or immediately. Several groups of the Micmac reluctantly accepted the outcome and, along with the Passamaquoddy and Malecite, signed treaties with the British during 1760. The majority of the Micmac followed suit in 1761, but Rogers Rangers were required to expel the French from their last outposts along the upper St. John River in 1760.

Despite the peace signed in 1760, when the British first tried to settle to the lower St. John in 1762, the Maliseet warned survey crews to remain well-down the river. What they could expect if they proceeded farther upstream was left unspoken. It was not until 1768 that settlement was able to push inland, and lasting treaties with the Maliseet were not signed until 1770 and 1776. At the end of the American Revolution in 1783, 14,000 badly abused British loyalists left the newly-formed United States and settled in New Brunswick. The Maliseet homeland on the St. John River was overrun in the process. Not all Micmac made peace with the British in 1760-61, and some bands in the interior remained hostile until 1779. During the American Revolution, the Micmac generally favored the Americans ...probably because they felt the overthrow of the British would restore French rule. The feeling persisted. Years later during the War of 1812, they chose to remain neutral at their own request. The Micmac have been at peace since 1779, and treaties signed during the early 1800s established the reserves which the Micmac still occupy in the Canadian Maritimes.Type your paragraph here.

Seeing I am here I will post a History for you all:
The Wet'suwet'en First Nation is a First Nations band located outside of Burns Lake in the central interior of British Columbia. It was formerly known as the Broman Lake Indian Band and is still usually referred to as Broman Lake although this is no longer its official name. Its members speak the Witsuwit'en dialect of Babine-Witsuwit'en, a Northern Athabaskan language. The main community is on Palling Indian Reserve No. 1.

The band has approximately 140 members, about half living on reserve.

The band is a member of the Carrier Sekani Tribal Council and of the Broman Lake Development Corporation.

The Wet'suwet'en First Nation was formerly part of the Omineca Band. In 1984 the Omineca Band split into the Broman Lake and Nee-Tahi-Buhn bands. The Skin Tayi band later split off from Nee-Tahi-Buhn.

The Unist'ot'en Clan has had a checkpoint for the last half decade, the Unist'ot'en Camp, which has been stopping all pipeline crews from entering the Yintah since they do not have permission from their clan mother Freda Huson. The land is unceded, which means that any corporation, company, or police force from Canada has no authority on the land.

Other Wet'suwet'en nations include the Burns Lake Indian Band, Hagwilget Village First Nation, and Moricetown.

A clan is a group of people belonging to a particular Tribe or House to identify families and territories. There are five Wet'suwet'en clans:

Gil_seyhu (Big Frog)
Laksilyu (Small Frog)
Gitdumden (Wolf/Bear)
Laksamshu (Fireweed)
Tsayu (Beaver Clan)

In the feast hall they operate as four Clans with Laksamshu and Tsayu clans working together.

Culture Camps

Wet’suwet’en Culture Camps provides outdoor expedition camps for children who are interested in learning the ways of their ancestors. Children throughout the province attend the camp, which are held throughout the year. Children learn Wet’suwet’en culture and language, as well as how to preserve food, about their genealogy and how to live off the land. They are taught about anger management, stress management and are encourage just to have fun.[

Today's tribal history is 
The Mississauga are a subtribe of the Anishinaabe-speaking First Nations people located in southern Ontario, Canada. They are closely related to the Ojibwa. The name "Mississauga" comes from the Anishinaabe word Misi-zaagiing, meaning "[Those at the] Great River-mouth."
According to the histories of the Anishinaabe, after departing the "Second Stopping Place" near Niagara Falls, the core Anishinaabe peoples migrated along the shores of Lake Erie to what is now southern Michigan. They became "lost" both physically and spiritually. The Mississaugas migrated along a northern route by the Credit River, to Georgian Bay. These were considered their historic traditional lands on the shores of Lake Superior and northern Lake Huron around the Mississagi River. The Mississaugas called for the core Anishinaabe to Midewiwin meaning 'return to the path of the good life'. The core Anishinaabe peoples formed the Council of Three Fires and migrated from their "Third Stopping Place" near the present city of Detroit to their "Fourth Stopping Place" on Manitoulin Island, along the eastern shores of Georgian Bay.

By the time the French explorers arrived in 1634, the Mississaugas were a distinct tribe of Anishinaabe peoples, living along the Mississagi River and on Manitoulin Island. On the 1675 Carte du Mississippi et des lacs Supérieur, Michigan et Huron, the Mississaugas were recorded as "Missisakingdachirinouek"[1] (Misi-zaaging dash ininweg: "Regular-speakers of the Great River-mouth"). They had moved from the Mississagi River area southward into the Kawartha lakes region. From this location, a smaller contingent moved southwest to an area along the Credit River, just west of modern-day Toronto. The French identified the peoples as Mississauga.

Alternate spellings of the name are Mississaga, Massassauga and Missisauga, plural forms of these three, and "Mississauga Indians". Before the Anishinaabe language replaced the Wyandot language in mid-17th century as the lingua franca of the Great Lakes region, the Mississaugas were also known by the name (exonym) which the Wendat called them.

When Conrad Weiser conducted a census in Logstown in 1748, he identified the people as Tisagechroamis, his attempt at conveying the sound of their exonym, name in Wendat. Other variants of the spelling were Tisagechroamis, Tisaghechroamis, Tisagechroan, Tisagechroanu, and Zisaugeghroanu. "The Tisagechroanu were the Mississagas from Lake Huron, a large tribe of French Indians, or under French influences. The name Tisagechroanue here is probably a misprint, for it is most often found Zisaugeghroanu."[2]

In the waning years of the American Revolution, starting in 1781, the British Crown purchased land from the Mississauga in a series of transactions that encompassed much of present-day southern Ontario. They wanted to make land grants to Loyalists who left property in the Thirteen Colonies to reward them for loyalty, and the Crown also wanted to develop this area of the country with farms and towns. In the 21st century, the Canadian government awarded the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation nearly $145 million in settlement of a land claim because of the Crown's underpayment in the 18th century.

Legacy[edit]
The city of Mississauga is named after the Mississauga
Western and Eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus) are named after them.
Fort Mississauga is named after them.
Today[edit]
Historically, there were five First Nations that made up the Mississauga Nations. Today, the six Mississauga nations are the following (listed under their historical counterpart, if applicable):

Mississauga First Nation — Mississagi River 8 Reserve
Mississaugas of Chibaouinani (historical)
Alderville First Nation (formerly: Mississaugas of Alnwick) — Alderville First Nation Reserve, Sugar Island 37A Reserve
Mississaugas of the Credit (historical)
Mississaugas of Beldom (historical)
Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation — New Credit 40A Reserve
Mississaugas of Matchedash (historical)
Mississaugas of Rice Lake, Mud Lake and Scugog Lake (historical)
Curve Lake First Nation (formerly: Mississaugas of Mud Lake) — Curve Lake First Nation 35 Reserve, Curve Lake 35A Reserve and Islands in the Trent Waters Indian Reserve 36A
Mississaugas of Grape Island (historical)
Hiawatha First Nation (formerly: Mississaugas of Rice Lake) — Hiawatha First Nation Indian Reserve, Islands in the Trent Waters Indian Reserve 36A
Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation — Mississaugas of Scugog Island Reserve, Islands in the Trent Waters Indian Reserve 36A
One of the largest is the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nations. As of 2005, the Mississaugas of New Credit have a population of 1,375. All the Mississaugas are a small part of the Ojibwa nation of 200,000 people.Type your paragraph here.

Good Morning Brother and Sisters of the Creator 
Today's History is of the Crow Tribe. Enjoy
The Crow, called the Apsáalooke in their own Siouan language, or variants including Absaroka, are Native Americans, who in historical times lived in the Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota, where it joins the Missouri River. Today, they are enrolled in the federally recognized Crow Tribe of Montana.[citation needed]

Pressured by the Ojibwe and Cree peoples (the Iron Confederacy), who had earlier and better access to guns through the fur trade, they had migrated there from the Ohio Eastern Woodland area to settle south of Lake Winnipeg, Canada. From there, they were pushed to the west by the Cheyennes. Both the Crow and the Cheyennes were then pushed farther west by the Lakota (Sioux), who took over the territory from the Black Hills of South Dakota to the Big Horn Mountains of Montana; the Cheyennes finally became close allies of the Sioux, but the Crows remained bitter enemies of both Sioux and Cheyennes. The Crow were generally friendly with the whites and managed to retain a large reservation of over 9300 km2 despite territorial losses.[citation needed]

Since the 19th century, Crow people have been concentrated on their reservation established south of Billings, Montana. They also live in several major, mainly western, cities. Tribal headquarters are located at Crow Agency, Montana
History[edit]
The name of the tribe, Apsáalooke [ə̀ˈpsáːɾòːɡè], meaning "children of the large-beaked bird",[1] was given to them by the Hidatsa, a neighboring Siouan tribe. French interpreters translated the name as gens du corbeaux ("people of [the] crows"), and they became known in English as the Crow. Other tribes also refer to the Apsáalooke as "crow" or "raven" in their own languages.[2]

In 1743 the Absaroka encountered their first people of European descent, the two La Vérendrye brothers from New France. The explorers called the Apsáalooke beaux hommes (handsome men). The Crow called the French explorers baashchíile (persons with yellow eyes).

In the Northern Plains[edit]
The early home of the Crow-Hidatsa ancestral tribe was in the Ohio country, near Lake Erie. Driven from there by better armed, aggressive neighbors, they settled for a while south of Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba.[3] Later the people moved to the Devil's Lake region of North Dakota before the Crow split from the Hidatsa and moved westward. The Crow were largely pushed westward due to intrusion and influx of the Cheyenne subsequently the Sioux.

To acquire control of their new home, they warred against Shoshone bands (called Bikkaashe—"People of the Grass Lodges"),[4] and drove them westward. They allied with local Kiowa and Kiowa Apache bands.[5][6][7] The Kiowa and Kiowa Apache bands later migrated southward, and the Crow remained dominant in their established area through the 18th and 19th centuries, the era of the fur trade.

Their tribal territory stretched from what is now Yellowstone National Park and the headwaters of the Yellowstone River (E-chee-dick-karsh-ah-shay—"Elk River") in the west, north to the Musselshell River, then northeast to the Yellowstone's mouth at the Missouri River, then southeast to the confluence of the Yellowstone and Powder Rivers (Bilap chashee—"Powder River" or "Ash River"), south along the South Fork of the Powder River, confined in the SE by the Rattlesnake Mountains and westwards in the SW by the Wind River Range. Their tribal area included the river valleys of the Judith River (Buluhpa'ashe—"Plum River"), Powder River, Tongue River, Big Horn River and Wind River as well as the Bighorn Mountains (Iisiaxpúatachee Isawaxaawúua), Pryor Mountains (Baahpuuo Isawaxaawúua), Wolf Mountains (Cheetiish—"Wolf Teeth Mountains") and Absaroka Range (also called Absalaga Mountains).[8]

Once established in the Valley of the Yellowstone River[9] and its tributaries on the Northern Plains in Montana and Wyoming, the Crow divided into four groups: the Mountain Crow, River Crow, Kicked in the Bellies and Beaver Dries its Fur. Formerly semi-nomad hunters and farmers in the northeastern woodland, they picked up the nomadic lifestyle of the Plains Indians as hunters and gatherers and hunted bison. Before 1700, they were using dog travois for carrying goods. They obtained horses from the Spanish.[10][11]

Enemies and allies[edit]

Ledger drawing of a Cheyenne war chief and warriors (left) coming to a truce with a Crow war chief and warriors (right)

A scout on a horse, 1908
From about 1740, the Plains tribes rapidly adopted the horse, which allowed them to move out on to the Plains and hunt buffalo more actively. However, the severe winters in the North kept their herds smaller than those of Plains tribes in the South. The Crow, Hidatsa, Eastern Shoshone and Northern Shoshone soon became noted as horse breeders and dealers, and developed relatively large horse herds. At the time, other eastern and northern tribes were also moving on to the Plains, in search of game for the fur trade, bison, and more horses. The Crow were subject to raids and horse thefts by horse-poor tribes including the powerful Blackfoot Confederacy, Gros Ventre, Assiniboine, Pawnee, and Ute.[12][13] Later they had to face the Lakota and their allies, the Arapaho and Cheyenne, who also stole horses from their enemies. Their greatest enemies became the tribes of the Blackfoot Confederacy and the Lakota-Cheyenne-Arapaho alliance.

The Crow were generally friendly with the northern Plains tribes of the Flathead (although sometimes they had conflicts); Nez Perce, Kutenai, Shoshone, Kiowa and Kiowa Apache. The powerful Iron Confederacy (Nehiyaw-Pwat), an alliance of northern plains Indian nations based around the fur trade developed as enemies of the Crow. It was named after the dominating Plains Cree and Assiniboine peoples, and latter included the Stoney, Saulteaux, Ojibwe, and Métis.

Historical subgroups[edit]
The Apsaalooke by the early 19th century were divided into three independent groupings, who came together only for common defense:[citation needed]

Ashalaho (‘Many Lodges’, today called Mountain Crow), Awaxaawaxammilaxpáake (‘Mountain People’) or Ashkúale (‘The Center Camp’). The Ashalaho or Mountain Crow, the largest Crow group, split from the Awatixa Hidatsa and were the first to travel west. (McCleary 1997: 2-3)., (Bowers 1992: 21) Their leader No Intestines had received a vision and led his band on a long migratory search for sacred tobacco, finally settling in southeastern Montana. They lived in the Rocky Mountains and foothills on the present-day Wyoming-Montana border along the Upper Yellowstone River, in the Big Horn and Absaroka Range (also Absalaga Mountains) with the Black Hills comprising the eastern edge of their territory.
Binnéessiippeele (‘Those Who Live Amongst the River Banks’), today called River Crow or Ashshipíte (‘The Black Lodges’) The Binnéessiippeele, or River Crow, split from the Hidatsa proper, according to tradition because of a dispute over a bison stomach. As a result, the Hidatsa called the Crow Gixáa-iccá—"Those Who Pout Over Tripe".[14][15] They lived along the Yellowstone and Musselshell rivers south of the Missouri River and in the river valleys of the Big Horn, Powder and Wind rivers, (historically known as the Powder River Country), sometimes traveling north up to the Milk River.
Eelalapito (Kicked In The Bellies) or Ammitaalasshé (‘Home Away From The Center’, that is, away from the Ashkúale - Mountain Crow).[16][17] They claimed the area known as the Bighorn Basin, from the Bighorn Mountains in the east to the Absaroka Range to the west, and south to the Wind River Range in northern Wyoming. Sometimes they settled in the Owl Creek Mountains, Bridger Mountains and along the Sweetwater River in the south.[18]
The oral tradition of the Apsaalooke mentions a fourth group, the Bilapiluutche (‘Beaver Dries its Fur’), who are believed to have merged with the Kiowa in the second half of the eighteenth century.

Gradual displacement from tribal lands[edit]
When white Americans arrived in numbers, the Crows were resisting heavy pressure from enemies who greatly outnumbered them. In the 1850s, a vision by Plenty Coups, a Crow boy who later became their greatest chief, was interpreted by tribal elders as meaning that the whites would become dominant over the entire country, and that the Crows, if they were to retain any of their land, would need to remain on good terms with the whites.[19]

By 1851 the more numerous Lakota and Cheyenne were established just to the south and east of Crow territory in Montana.[20] These enemy tribes coveted the hunting lands of the Crow and warred against them. By right of conquest, they took over the eastern hunting lands of the Crow, including the Powder and Tongue River valleys, and pushed the less numerous Crow to the west and northwest upriver on the Yellowstone. After about 1860, the Lakota Sioux claimed all the former Crow lands from the Black Hills of South Dakota to the Big Horn Mountains of Montana. They demanded that the Americans deal with them regarding any intrusion into these areas.

The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 with the United States confirmed as Crow lands a large area centered on the Big Horn Mountains: the area ran from the Big Horn Basin on the west, to the Musselshell River on the north, and east to the Powder River; it included the Tongue River basin.[21] But for two centuries the Cheyenne and many bands of Lakota Sioux had been steadily migrating westward across the plains, and were still pressing hard on the Crows.

"Eight Crow prisoners under guard at Crow agency, Montana, 1887"
Red Cloud's War (1866–1868) was a challenge by the Lakota Sioux to the United States military presence on the Bozeman Trail, a route along the eastern edge of the Big Horn Mountains to the Montana gold fields. Red Cloud's War ended with victory for the Lakota Sioux. The Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) with the United States confirmed the Lakota control over all the high plains from the Black Hills of the Dakotas westward across the Powder River Basin to the crest of the Big Horn Mountains.[22] Thereafter bands of Lakota Sioux led by Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse and others, along with their Northern Cheyenne allies, hunted and raided throughout the length and breadth of eastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming, which had been for a time ancestral Crow territory.

On June 25, 1876 the Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne achieved a major victory over army forces under Colonel George A. Custer at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, but the Great Sioux War (1876–1877) ended in the defeat of the Sioux and their Cheyenne allies. Crow warriors enlisted with the US Army for this war. The Sioux and allies were forced from eastern Montana and Wyoming: some bands fled to Canada, while others suffered forced removal to distant reservations, primarily in present-day Montana and Nebraska west of the Missouri River.

In 1918, the Crow organized a gathering to display their culture, and they invited members of other tribes. The Crow Fair is now celebrated yearly on the third weekend of August, with wide participation from other tribes.[23]Type your paragraph here.

Aboriginal Elder: Definition
In this article we provide the definition of Aboriginal Elder and answer some specific questions people ask us in our Working Effectively with Aboriginal Peoples® workshops. Questions such as: what makes someone an Elder, is being an Elder age specific, how should you address Aboriginal Elders and more.

We have put the questions in italics and then follow-up with the answer.

What makes an Elder? 
The big challenge in answering this question is that not all communities are the same and it really depends on the culture or community to define what makes an Elder.

One common trait amongst Aboriginal Elders is a deep spirituality that influences every aspect of their lives and teachings. They strive to show by example - by living their lives according to deeply ingrained principles, values and teachings.

Do you have to be a certain age to be an elder?
Being an Elder is not defined by age, but rather Elders are recognized because they have earned the respect of their community through wisdom, harmony and balance of their actions in their teachings. In First Nation Elder vs Senior we take a closer look at the importance of effective communication.

Can both men and women be elders?
Being an Elder is not gender specific as in my own experience I know both male and female Elders.

Is the role of an Elder the same everywhere you go across the country?
While the exact role of Elders may change from community to community, there are common principles that Elders try to instil in their community members such as respect for the natural world and that the earth is their mother. Aboriginal Elders are deeply committed to share their knowledge, provide guidance, teach others to respect the natural world, to learn to listen and feel the rhythms of the elements and seasons.

Has the role of Elders changed over time?
In some communities, when families move apart, Elders will travel to visit the family members in order to keep in touch and to prevent them from forgetting their connections. In some jurisdictions, Elders have a real presence in the schools. Some Elders have also formed organizations, with regular meetings and websites such as the BC Elders Communications Society.

What are the duties of elders? 
In my experience, the duties of an Elder today can include: conducting smudges, sweats, prayers, opening prayers, counseling, sweetgrass ceremonies and negotiations to name but a few.

When an Elder is invited to conduct an opening prayer or smudge, what is the customary honorarium and how does one find that out?
Honorarium amounts vary but Elders do get compensated for travel and time. You have to determine which Nation’s traditional lands you are in, and then contact the office of that Nation and ask if they can suggest an Elder and the amount of the customary honorarium. Please read First Nation Elder Protocol for more complete information.

Are other gifts welcome or expected?
There are four sacred plants: tobacco, sweet grass, sage and cedar. A gift of one of the four sacred plants is seen as recognition of the wisdom an Elder can share. In Inuit culture, tobacco is not used ceremonially.

Working Effectively with Aboriginal Peoples® tips:

How should we address elders? Should we use just their names or add Elder to the front as in “Elder Alice will now conduct the opening prayer”?
Be prepared to adjust your volume of speech;
Be wary of too much eye contact;
Be sure to address them as Elder Alice instead of Alice to show high respect;
Be sure to ask for consent before photographing or video recording a ceremonial event.

Type your paragraph here.

 Online Aboriginal History 

Good Evening Family as requested by Shawn MacGuire here is tonight's history: 
History of the Tlingits 
Picture
The Tlingit people, whose name means "People of the Tides", have a vast history; many speculate its origins dating as early as 11,000 years ago. Two major theories exist as to where the Tlingit people originate from, the largest being a coastal migration across the Bering Strait land mass from north Asia. Others, however, believe that the Tlingit people may have migrated from Polynesia by island-hopping. However, it is not disputed that the Tlingit settled along Southeast Alaska thousands of years ago. For these many years, they lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle, subsisting off of the abundant Alaskan wildlife in a fashion few still continue today. The Tlingit people shared relations with the neighboring Haida and Tsimshian tribes, as they do in the modern era. These peoples traversed the area with large canoes of red cedar, often averaging sixty feet in length. Trading their prized Chiklat robes, shells, and jewelry, they received well-crafted canoes and sturdy cedar trees from the Haida lands. However, times were not completely peaceful; the tribes fought and raided each other’s villages for riches and slaves.

This trade continued upon the first arrival of Russian explorers in 1741. Although Aleksey Chirikov sent several men to the area who never returned, the fleet settled on the land peacefully several years later. Soon, in their wishes for conquest, the Russian men aggressively took advantage of the land and rerouted trade routes. In 1802, Chief Katlia of Sitka successfully forced the post to defect. The Russians, however, soon reclaimed the land, much to the resistance of local Tlingit.
As the Americans attempted to purge their newly-purchased land in the mid 1800s, one half of the Tlingit population was eradicated by diseases such as smallpox. Mines and logging establishments were installed on their land, and many felt powerless under such dominating capitalistic forces.

In 1912, hope was given to the Tlingit peoples as the Alaska Native Brotherhood was founded. This program was established with the goal of promoting equality for Alaskan natives. Their efforts led to the passing of a bill in which natives could become territorial citizens, albeit if they shed some of their “uncivilized” ways. However, their political power grew in 1924, when in the first year of eligibility for national citizenship, a Tlingit man became a member of the Territorial House of Representatives. This event hallmarked a longstanding history of Tlingit presence in politics.

With the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANSCA), the Tlingit people were eligible for reclamation of their former land. The Sealaska Corporation sought and purchased the property, however, although the Tlingit still had the opportunity of a lawsuit. To this day, Tlingit natives are still receiving financial compensation for their lost land.

As Americans and Christian missionaries forced their culture upon the Tlingit people, many attempted to fight inequality and prejudice. In 1945, Tlingit member Elizabeth Peratrovitch pled for the passage of an anti-discrimination bill, which eventually was made into law. The State of Alaska then recognized February eighth as an annual celebration day in her honor.

Nowadays, ANSCA corporations have substantial lobbying power in the area, representing 16,000 Tlingit and Haida people. A large population have jobs in the logging, forestry, fishing, and tourism industries, while their support of higher education has led to many with occupations such as healthcare workers, lawyers, and educators. Most of these people have relocated to more populous areas of southeast Alaska for more abundant employment opportunities. Sealaska and other ANSCA corporations provide corporate and managerial positions to some Tlingit people. In 1978, tribal courts were introduced in the Sitka area to resolve civil disputes between various peoples and clans.

Most Tlingit people tend to vote for the Democratic party, and most assume political office under that group as well. Significant amounts of people have also served in wars, with substantial support from the community.

While many Tlingit have adapted to a modernized lifestyle, some are still attempting to subsist off of the Alaskan land, despite growing fishing and logging industries nearby. Unfortunately, this had made many of these people reliant on welfare as a partial contribution to income. This has also introduced several health issues to the area, with native Tlingit having high susceptibility to influenza, arthritis, hepatitis, cancer, and diabetes. Alcoholism, however, is the most prevalent disease among Tlingit natives. However, suicide rates are consistently lower compared to other tribes nationally, and members of the community are initiating support and rehabilitation groups for those afflicted with major health issues. The hopes to retain the Tlingit culture are evidently shared throughout the community.


Sources: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Sr-Z/Tlingit.html#b ;http://sheldonmuseum.org/tlingithistory.htm

Tlingit - Early history, First contact with europeans, The land claims periodType your paragraph here.

http://forgottenorigin.com/mikmaq-ancient-egyptian-connection-in-kariong-nova-scotia-and-illinois-by-jack-macnab/comment-page-1Type your paragraph here.

TGOOD Morning Family and Friends here is your History for today
:Passamaquoddy Tribe - Pleasant Point

Pleasant Point Reservation is located in the easternmost region of the United States, in the town of Perry, Washington County, Maine, on a narrow peninsula leading to the island community of Eastport. The Reservation consists of 115 acres deeded to the tribe by the state plus 216 acres of annexed land adjacent to the original parcel.

The Passamaquoddy Tribe, also known as Sipayik (meaning: along the edge) is an indigenous Native American Tribe of eastern Maine/Maritime Canada. Culturally, the Passamaquoddy are one of several tribes of the Abnaki group. The Passamaquoddy people have inhabited this region of Downeast Maine and Maritime Canada since the time of their forebears and thus have a strong sense of belonging to the land.

Pleasant Point is one of two Reservations of the Passamaquoddy Tribe. Indian Township Reservation is located inland about 50 miles from Pleasant Point. Each of the two Reservations has separate governing systems, and the federal government recognizes each. Elected Tribal Council forms the major governing body for the Tribe. Tribal members elect a Tribal Governor, who serves as the chief administrator for the community. Passamaquoddy Indian Township and Pleasant Point Council hold joint council meetings with both governing bodies. Serving the Council and Governor is the Lieutenant Governor and an extensive staff of Tribal administrators including program managers for Bureau of Indian Affairs, Indian Health Service, and other federal contracts or grants.

The Passamaquoddy Tribe has an evolving land resource. The current 330 acres comprise the Reservation and annexed areas that provide for housing, economic development, and recreation to tribal members. The impact of the Passamaquoddy people on this evolving land resource will have to be carefully managed so that it will retain its environmental qualities and so that it will be preserved for future generations. The balance of badly needed economic development and long-term preservation of the environment is the focus of the Tribe’s environmental program. There are other land holdings off the Reservation, in the towns of Perry and Robbinston, which are expected to provide long-term economic benefit through sustainable development. These fee and trust lands will also have to be carefully managed. Knowledge of the actual quality and specific makeup of the various lands, waters, and air is being expanded. The Environmental Department’s GPS/GIS technician has completed accurate and precise mapping of the Tribal boundaries, and wetland delineation of the reservation, both fresh and saltwater, is completed.

The Reservation is bordered on its north side by Passamaquoddy Bay and on its south side by Cobscook Bay. These two bays are part of the traditional fishing grounds of the Passamaquoddy Tribe. In addition to these water resources are various other wetlands, lakes, and ponds on tribal lands in the towns of Perry and Robbinston

This Tribe has identified the following five objectives for developing its Tribal environmental Program: 1) All Tribal waters will be clean and healthy; 2) all Tribal lands, ecosystems, homes, and workplaces will have clean and healthy air; 3) Tribal government will work to continue its traditional practice of protecting and preserving the wondrous resources of the Great Mother Earth; 4) No waste or pollution will threaten Tribal Resources and 5) Foster environmental learning and stewardship among the Tribes youth, the community and Tribal leadership.

Accomplishments

The Passamaquoddy Tribe at Pleasant Point Environmental Department works under these broad goals:

Protect Tribal waters and related aquatic and marine ecosystems
Protect foods and medicines consumed by Tribal members
Foster environmental learning and stewardship among the Tribe’s Youth, the community, Tribal leadership, and the general public
Protect Tribal lands and waters from improperly disposed wastes and accidental chemical spills.
EPA provides grant funding under Performance Partnership Grant (PPG), air, lead, OECA, and other programs to the Tribe to support the tribe in meeting their environmental goals. The Tribe has treatment similar to that of a state (TAS) in the EPA Lead, CWA 106, 319 programs.

Water Quality

Salt water testing, in cooperation with the Cobscook Bay Resource Center and the DMR, of both Passamaquoddy and Cobscook Bays analyzes fecal coliform and phytoplankton. Shoreline surveys are conducted to look for problem septic systems. These monitoring efforts are to protect and restore clam flats in the area. Salt water quality monitoring of chlorophyll and other parameters are being conducted to determine changes in primary productivity and impacts that might occur from the salmon farming industry.

Fish tissue testing has been done in both bays for heavy metals and dioxins. There are plans to expand this program in the future years. A multi-media study that incorporates air pollution modeling and monitoring to predict the types of toxins that might be in the sustenance foods, analysis of the foods, and a tribal food consumption survey is being conducted. This will help determine the risk the tribal members are exposed to and will help determine strategies to lower the risks.

Fresh Water quality parameters of streams and ponds on Tribal trust blueberry lands in Columbia Falls have been established. Monitoring of water withdrawal for irrigation is ongoing at T19. Boyden Lake water chemistry, the source of the Tribe’s drinking water, is being monitored to determine the impact of the renewed alewife run, due to the Tribe’s repair of the fish ladder in Boyden Stream.

The department is actively participating in ME DEP’s rulemaking for permitting of toxicity effluent discharges. The department has voiced concerns of sediment contamination, importance of a healthy Passamaquoddy Bay, and the need to access chemicals that are not being studied or analyzed.

Wetlands

Wetland delineation, function, and value assessments are being done for all wetlands on the reservation and surrounding fee lands. Wetlands support animals and plants that are culturally important to the Tribe are being identified and protected. Tribal Council has reviewed and approved the Department’s Wetlands Management Plan.

Natural Resource Inventory

Tribal lands are being surveyed to map all natural resources from soils to wildlife habitants. These inventories provide the information necessary to make land use decisions important to the Passamaquoddy Tribe.

GIS & GPS

All mapping is done utilizing GIS computer programs and a GPS unit to collect data in the field. This technology allows the tribe to have updated maps for the Tribal infrastructure, housing, and natural resource information.

Lead Program

This program is conducted in conjunction with the Health Center. Tribal children are tested for lead. Testing is available for housing and soils. Lead hazard awareness is done through the health center, housing authority, and the daycare center.

Air Quality Program

The department goal is to contribute to the regional air quality monitoring in Washington County, Community awareness of ozone and alerts for high ozone forecasts using Sipayik News Bulletin and Tribal TV. The Tribe has an air quality analysis shelter monitoring weather data, ozone, PM2.5. The Tribe submits data directly to the AQS system, and real-time data is available from the Tribe’s website.

The Environmental Department has 2 licensed technicians for sampling indoor air quality, specifically for mold and radon contamination. A number of older homes on the reservation have unhealthy levels of these toxins, almost certainly contributing to respiratory illness and potentially cancer and other diseases.

FERC Dam Relicensing

Two dams affecting Tribal lands are in the process of federal relicensing; GNP at Canada Falls Lake and Domtar at the St. Croix River. Both environmental departments monitor these proceedings, attend meetings, and report to Joint Council.
tory: The Maliseet and Passamaquoddy people were closely related neighbors who shared a common language, but though the French referred to both tribes collectively as Etchemins, they always considered themselves politically independent. The tribes of the east coast were confusing to Europeans, who couldn't understand why dozens of small groups of Native Americans lived together yet claimed to be separate nations. What they didn't realize was that these groups had not always been so small. European diseases decimated the Indian populations--the Passamaquody were 20,000 strong before European contact, and no more than 4000 afterwards--and they regrouped as best they could. The Maliseet and Passamaquoddy, near relatives and long-time allies who spoke dialects of the same language, banded together against European and Iroquoian aggression with their neighbors the Abenakis, Penobscots, and Micmacs. This Wabanaki Confederacy was no more than a loose alliance, however, and the tribes never gave up their sovereignty. Today the Passamaquoddy live primarily in the United States and the Maliseet in Canada, but the distinction between the two is not imposed by those governments--the two tribes have always been politically distinct entities.

T755874477892655_778557378957698 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/778557378957698 https://youtu.be/TF5saCStsK8 Link
755874477892655_778556922291077 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/778556922291077 Seeing I am here I will post a History for you all: The Wet'suwet'en First Nation is a First Nations band located outside of Burns Lake in the central interior of British Columbia. It was formerly known as the Broman Lake Indian Band and is still usually referred to as Broman Lake although this is no longer its official name. Its members speak the Witsuwit'en dialect of Babine-Witsuwit'en, a Northern Athabaskan language. The main community is on Palling Indian Reserve No. 1.  The band has approximately 140 members, about half living on reserve.  The band is a member of the Carrier Sekani Tribal Council and of the Broman Lake Development Corporation.  The Wet'suwet'en First Nation was formerly part of the Omineca Band. In 1984 the Omineca Band split into the Broman Lake and Nee-Tahi-Buhn bands. The Skin Tayi band later split off from Nee-Tahi-Buhn.  The Unist'ot'en Clan has had a checkpoint for the last half decade, the Unist'ot'en Camp, which has been stopping all pipeline crews from entering the Yintah since they do not have permission from their clan mother Freda Huson. The land is unceded, which means that any corporation, company, or police force from Canada has no authority on the land.  Other Wet'suwet'en nations include the Burns Lake Indian Band, Hagwilget Village First Nation, and Moricetown.  A clan is a group of people belonging to a particular Tribe or House to identify families and territories. There are five Wet'suwet'en clans:  Gil_seyhu (Big Frog) Laksilyu (Small Frog) Gitdumden (Wolf/Bear) Laksamshu (Fireweed) Tsayu (Beaver Clan)  In the feast hall they operate as four Clans with Laksamshu and Tsayu clans working together.  Culture Camps  Wet’suwet’en Culture Camps provides outdoor expedition camps for children who are interested in learning the ways of their ancestors. Children throughout the province attend the camp, which are held throughout the year. Children learn Wet’suwet’en culture and language, as well as how to preserve food, about their genealogy and how to live off the land. They are taught about anger management, stress management and are encourage just to have fun. Photo
755874477892655_778533815626721 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/778533815626721 Wow I No Idea how much I have written over a month. This is going to be a lot of work. Status
755874477892655_778349708978465 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/778349708978465 I am only relighting the page so I can take all the history and pictures off and repost to my website and blog. Shouldn't take me long. Status
755874477892655_778100792336690 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/778100792336690 This Is last post I will publish the page is set to self destruct in 14 days . This is piece of music I wrote Jan 01 2016.  The Journey Home These beautiful places L've been, all the people I have seen.   Bone for bone your are the same as me.   Chorus : The  Journey home as been along one, I  have many debts along the way. Debts to pay to my history whom have paved my way.   I have learned the pain and suffering of my past to bring us to my today. I hear your creator sing the songs everyday  .Chorus : The  Journey home as been along one, I  have many debts along the way. Debts to pay to my history whom have paved my way.     Chorus : The  Journey home as been along one, I  have many debts along the way. Debts to pay to my history whom have paved my way. For that I am grearful and I walk the journey home alone.   Good bye my friends, the politics tonight was to much for me to take., Status
755874477892655_777966629016773 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/777966629016773 I am going to post a question to you all that are  all on a Rez. If I got sponsored to do a National tour to rewrite history  from the elders, how would a I be received, as I am a white Metis. Talk about it among your elders and post your answers. Status
755874477892655_777841195695983 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/777841195695983 Letters of hope to  Neskantage  We have only 22 notes of hope  please take a moment to write a comment of hope to this these  people , to prevent a suicide, let them know help is on the way.  I need 200 more. The package of your comments will individually enveloped and sent out Monday.  Please help me , help them. Status
755874477892655_777555082391261 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/777555082391261 Wouldn't it be cool to  do a national road trip to document and video all the bands. To get the truth from elders complying a fully truthful site. But it would cost a lot I would need corporate sponsorship, but what a reward it would be for our people.  Just a dream that came to me today. Status
755874477892655_777511312395638 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/777511312395638 Indigenous People Matter shared Wikoskalaka Yuwita Pi - Lakota Gathering of Young Women's photo. Photo
755874477892655_777501145729988 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/777501145729988 https://youtu.be/rYtENCLs5Uw Link
755874477892655_777500102396759 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/777500102396759 Good Evening my Aboriginal Family. Happy New Year  At the Request of a reader  I am publishing to accounts of " The English Murders of Beothuks" so it's a long read, but worth it . 1-   A History of the Beothuk, a talk given by Ingeborg Marshall at the launch of her book A History and Ethnography of the Beothuk, at the meeting of the Newfoundland Historical Society, St. John's, 19th Sept. 1996.  In this talk I will give an overview of the development of Beothuk/White relations which is the backbone of the history of the Beothuk as we know it. Most of the information comes from records kept by Europeans (mostly English). Because there was so little contact with the Beothuk, their voice is nearly absent from the record and it was therefore not possible to evaluate accounts by the English against evidence from the Beothuk. This is a limitation that I have not been able to compensate for other than making the very best of information that came directly from Beothuk.  There are very few 16th century reports of native people in Newfoundland and none are reliable descriptions of Beothuk. What emerges from the records is that by the mid-1500s Newfoundland's native population was said to be austere and to avoid contact.  We fare better in the 17th century. Letters by John Guy and Henry Crout from the English colony at Cupids describe a meeting with Beothuk in 1612 at Sunnyside in Bulls Arm, Trinity Bay. After a ritual involving shaking a white wolf skin, singing and dancing and striking their chests the Beothuk and colonists exchanged presents. The two parties then shared a meal. Trade was done by the silent barter method - that is in the absence of the trading partner. The Beothuk suspended furs from poles and Guy and his men left what they considered to be a fair exchange. Guy thought that the Beothuk were harmless people and planned to return to them in the following year. He described their appearance, clothes, houses, canoes and their habit of colouring themselves and their utensils with red ochre. Later documents clarify that the ochre was a mark of tribal identity for the Beothuk and that the first coat given to an infant was a sign of initiation.  Henry Croute's correspondence with Sir Percival Willoughby, for whom he acted as agent in Newfoundland, tells us that he returned to the Beothuk camp at Dildo Arm in the following year but found it deserted. He traded for furs elsewhere on the coast, again in the absence of the trade partners; although he could see Beothuk in the woods they would not come close. His men were willing to use force to catch them but Crout would not allow this, explaining in his letter to Willoughby that:  If the [the Beothuk] should be touched or taken parforce ther wilbe never no hoop of any good to be done by them// for the are bentt to revenge if the be any way wronged// the maye hear after do vs mishcheefe or ells the will do it vnto some fishermen// I do writt this because I do leave some in this place which haue a intentt to take some of them parforce which I haue told them allredy my openyon which if the do I will insure you it may be a great lost in tyme vnto the Company.  Crout also mentioned that he knew "wher is one [man?] to be procured which can speake ther langguad very well which hath bin five years a mongst them." Unfortunately, he gave no information who this person was, under what circumstances he had joined the Beothuk and what his experience had been.  Twenty six years later David Kirke from Ferryland recorded that in 1613 the Beothuk had assembled to meet with John Guy, but that the crew of a passing fishing vessel had shot at them. The Indians had immediately fled and had done much mischief in Trinity Bay ever since. This and other hostile encounters contributed to a steady deterioration of relations between Beothuk and whites. The situation was aggravated by the fact the Beothuk gradually lost access to traditional campsites on the Avalon and Burin peninsulas, including Trinity and Placentia bays.  Outright hostilities seem not have erupted until the 1720s when Skeffington and other English settlers expanded their salmon business from rivers in Bonavista Bay to those in Notre Dame Bay. The Beothuk responded with killings and a few years later they also shot English trappers who reciprocated in kind. These are the earliest recorded killings - in both cases it was the Beothuk who killed first. However, this does not exclude the possibility that Beothuk had been killed previously and that this deed had not been recorded.  The 1720s appear to have been a turning point in the history of the Beothuk because during this decade they also entered into serious conflict with the Micmac. The Micmac dislodged them from St. George's Bay and subsequently from portions of the Newfoundland west and south coast so that the Beothuk territory was once again substantially reduced.  For the next thirty years the records do not mention Beothuk until, in 1758, a Beothuk woman and child were killed and a 9 year old boy - known as June - was captured. This incident may have provoked the Beothuk's killing of shipmaster Scott and five of his men, who had built a fortified station in the Bay of Exploits. The first white settlers in Hall's Bay suffered the same fate. These acts of violence on both sides set into motion a vicious cycle of murder and revenge in which the Beothuk were usually the looser.  In 1768, when several stories of brutalities by the English came to the attention of Governor Hugh Palliser he sent Lieut. John Cartwright up the Exploits River to make peace with the Beothuk. Cartwright did not meet any of them - either they were still on the coast (it was August), or the Beothuk went into hiding to avoid the armed men. Cartwright estimated the Beothuk population at about 300 to 500 people; based on his report and his map of Beothuk dwellings on the Exploits River I suggest a population figure of about 350 in that year. In retrospect it seems that circumstances to conciliate the Beothuk were never again as favourable. The Beothuk's animosity became entrenched which would have made negotiations difficult while approaches by the English were based on the wrong premises so that their attempts at creating peace were probably doomed before they got under way.  Following Cartwright's unsuccessful expedition many acts of violence occurred. The Beothuk ambushed and killed fishermen and the English retaliated with harassment and bloody raids. The most hideous story on record is that of the "Peyton raid" in 1781. After three days of travel up the Exploits River John Peyton Sr and two others came to a Beothuk camp and fired into the mamateeks (the Beothuk term for wigwams). They then pursued the fleeing Beothuk. A man who was too wounded to run away defended himself with a trap on which he was working but Peyton wrested it away from him and beat him to death. Nine years later Peyton's men made a second raid which may have been less bloody.  This violence contrasts sharply with the experience of four French sailors, in 1787 (only six years after the Peyton raid) who had became shipwrecked near Shoe Cove, south of La Scie, and were taken in by a group of Beothuk. They were very fearful of the Indians but were actually treated well. Jean Conan, who recorded this event, said that a girl who would have been about fifteen years old, took a fancy to him and seduced him. He even considered staying with the Indians and lead a hunting life but when a French boat came to their rescue he changed his mind. The Beothuk seem not to have stopped them from leaving.  Eventually the harassment and murder of Beothuk became more widely known and several people agitated for their protection, one of whom was George Cartwright of Labrador fame. In 1784, Cartwright proposed the establishment of an Indian Reserve between Dog Bay and Cape St. John - the area to be off limits to the English except for making hay and picking berries in fall. Cartwright described some of the atrocities against the Indians that he had heard about and predicted that they would not survive unless government intervened on their behalf. He offered his services as an Indian agent, but the Colonial Office was not willing to act.  Capt. George Christopher Pulling favoured a peace mission. He wrote to authorities in Britain in 1792:  As I conceive the Bay or River of Exploits the best place to go to for this undertaking and to be enabled to remain there during the winter I judge it necessary to have a vessel of about 200 tons burthen and of an easy draught of water to sail from England in the spring of the year so as to be in Newfoundland by the time the drift ice leaves the coast ... It will in my opinion be proper to lay out about a hundred pounds in wearing apparel, trinkets, beads etc. to leave in their wigwams or to dispose in any other manner found necessary to convince them of our intentions ... I think it necessary to assure the salmon Catchers and Furriers who inhabit or frequent those parts of Newfoundland ... that no notice will be taken of any cruelties that they may already have been guilty of. But that every step will be taken to bring to Justice all those who shall in future wilfully injure or molest them.  To prove that protection of the Beothuk was urgently needed Pulling recorded many violent acts against them. Chief Justice Reeves used this evidence in his plea for a change in policy towards the Beothuk in the Parliamentary Enquiry into the State of Trade to Newfoundland, in 1793. But government officials were not prepared to take costly or unpopular measures on behalf of Newfoundland's native population and refused to act upon these appeals. Other proposals, for example by Governors Waldegrave and Pole, were equally ignored.  By the turn of the 18th century British government agencies and Newfoundland governors finally began to acknowledge that the situation of the native population was untenable and that this problem should be addressed. In order to avoid a costly mission to the Beothuk, governors offered a reward to anyone who would bring a live Beothuk to St. John's. The idea was to treat such a captive with kindness and send him or her back with presents. In 1803 William Cull succeeded in bringing a Beothuk woman to St. John's. But no proper plan of how to use her knowledge about her people existed and she was not asked how they could be approached to create better relations. Cull was simply told to bring her back with presents. But Cull was afraid of the Beothuk and left her in the forest. The woman later visited a community alone and it was thought that she never joined her people.  At that time the Beothuk had lost most of their traditional territory to the English and Micmac. They still resorted to the Exploits River and Red Indian Lake, to Gander Lake, and the lakes inland from New and Badger Bay, and to the coast between Cape Freels and Cape St. John. They also continued to venture to the Wadhams and Funk Island to collect birds and eggs.  A milestone event in the by now tense relations between Beothuk and English was Capt. David Buchan's meeting with them in January 1811. With a party of twenty-three well armed Marines and three local settlers as guides Buchan trekked up the Exploits River and, early one morning, came upon a Beothuk settlement at Red Indian Lake. The occupants were speechless but quickly rallied and offered their visitors a meal. Since John Guy's meeting with the Beothuk in Trinity Bay this was the first time that Beothuk and English had come together in a peaceful manner. Buchan made every effort to instill trust in the Beothuk and when he believed that he had succeeded he returned to his camp to fetch presents; he left two of his men behind. The Beothuk, suspecting that Buchan would come back with a larger force to take them prisoner, killed and beheaded the two hostages and fled to a sequestered part of the forest. Later they stuck these heads on poles and danced around them in victory feasts. At that time the entire tribe amounted to 72 people.  In the following two summers Buchan searched for Beothuk on the coast but was unsuccessful in catching up with them. Governor Duckworth fully supported his efforts and thereby set a new standard of concern and willingness to act in order to bring about better relations with the Beothuk.  His successors did not show the same degree of commitment, probably because political and economic crises overshadowed their anxiety about the treatment of the Beothuk. Instead of taking the initiative they simply reacted to circumstances as they arose. Thus, when John Peyton Jr. requested permission to pursue the Beothuk after they had cut the moorings of one of his boats - he said he wanted to retrieve his property and let the Beothuk know that he was willing to trade with them - Governor Hamilton encouraged him to take a captive but did not order him to refrain from violence. In the event Peyton captured Demasduit, also known as Mary March, who had just had a baby and was too weak to escape. Her baby died two days later. When her husband, chief Nonosabasut, came to her rescue, Peyton's party killed him. A witness later recorded that as he lay on the ice "his eyes flashed fire and he uttered a yell that made the woods echo." Peyton Jr was brought before the Grand Jury for the killing of Nonosabasut but was acquitted.  Demasduit was taken to St. John's and her visit caused a significant change in people's opinion about the Beothuk. An article, published on 27 May 1819 in the Mercantile Journal (by an anonymous writer) states:  On Sunday last, the curiosity of the good people of this town was gratified by an unexpected visit from one of the Red Indians, a young woman, about twenty years old. In consequence of the habitual persecution and cruelty which every well informed person in this island knows to have occurred, we could not but believe that the Red Indians were the most ferocious and intractable of the savage tribes. And it is with no less astonishment than pleasure that we find in the young woman which has been brought amongst us a gentle being, sensibly alive to every mild impression and delicate propriety of her sex. Is it not horrible to reflect that at the very moment, while we set down at our fire sides in peace and composure, many of her country men, in all probability as amiable and interesting as this young woman, are exposed to wanton cruelty ... We might remember that as far as priority possession can convey a right of property, the Red Indians have the better title to the Island.  This was the first public admission that the right of the Beothuk to the island and its resources was more legitimate than that of the English.  The principal citizens of St. John's formed a committee and decided to organize and finance a mission to bring Demasduit back to her people. But Governor Hamilton refused to relinquish control over the captive. After an unsuccessful attempt at having her brought to a Beothuk camp in Notre Dame Bay, Capt. Buchan was asked to take her back to Red Indian Lake. Demasduit, who suffered from consumption, unexpectedly died on 8 January 1820 onboard HMS Grasshopper. Buchan brought her remains to the settlement where she had been captured. He subsequently searched the country for Beothuk survivors for forty days but they had gone into hiding.  Three years later, in 1823, furriers found Shanawdithit, her mother and sister in a starved and weak condition and brought them to magistrate John Peyton Jr on Exploits Island. After a brief visit to St. John's the mother and older daughter died and Shanawdithit was taken into the Peyton household where she acted as a servant. John Peyton Jr., aged 30, had only recently married the seventeen-year-old Eleanor Mahaney who was now in charge of her. Shanawdithit seems to have been reasonably happy in the Peyton household and Bishop Inglis, who visited the Peytons in 1827, recorded that the children loved her and "would leave their mother to go to her."  In the same year William Eppes Cormack, who had walked across the island in search of Beothuk in 1822 (but had not met any), founded the Boeothick Institution to elicit general support for his scheme of making peace with the Beothuk. Many prominent citizens became members and contributed financially. When his renewed search for Beothuk as well as attempts by native guides at locating survivors were unsuccessful Cormack concluded that the tribe was on the verge of extinction.  He brought Shanawdithit to St. John's where she arrived on 20 September 1828. Shanawdithit related to him how her tribe had dwindled from 72 members in 1811 to only 12 or 13 at the time she was captured. She had little hope that they would survive since they were too few to keep up the caribou-fences; and being driven from the shore "their means of existence were completely cut off." She never related the tragic story of her people without tears.  Cormack had great hopes that Shanawdithit would become the instrument of establishing peaceful relations with her tribe but she persistently refused to accompany any of the expeditions saying that it was "an invariable religious principle laid down by her people to sacrifice to the munes [the spirits] of the victims slain by the whites and Micmacs any Boëothics who had been in contact with them." She also told Cormack that "From infancy all her people were taught to cherish animosity and revenge against all other people; it was enforced by narrating the innumerable wrongs inflicted on the Boëothics... and that if the Boëothics made peace and talked with them they would not after they died go to the happy island and hunt in the country of the good spirit."  This information would indicate that during Shanawdithit's life time the Beothuk were not prepared to forget the wrongs they had suffered and to make peace.  Cormack left Newfoundland in January 1829 and Shanawdithit was transferred to the home of Attorney General James Simms. She died of consumption in a St. John's hospital on the 6th of June 1829.  Within a few years of Shanawdithit's death public opinion about the Beothuk had shifted markedly. The opening paragraph of an article in the Royal Gazette, published in 1832, states that the Beothuk had been dispossessed of their land and resources unlawfully and without regard to their rights or their ability to survive - that the fate of the Beothuk was distressing and a perplexing page in Newfoundland's history - and that the circumstances of their demise were "repulsive."  Thus, in the course of just over three centuries attitudes towards the Beothuk have come full circle. In the 1600s they were thought to be harmless and potentially useful as trade partners; in the early 1700s, when hostilities had started, they were said to be dangerous and sub-human and were persecuted and murdered. From the late 1700s onwards at least some people acknowledged that the Beothuk had a right to the land and resources and should be protected; once the Beothuk had vanished from the island Newfoundlanders considered them victims of prejudice and cruelty.  While I agree that both prejudice and cruelty were at work I suggest that the Beothuk had not been powerless victims who had allowed circumstances to rule their lives. In my view they were a heroic people who valued their independence and traditions above all and were prepared to face hostilities rather than be subjugated.  Ingeborg Marshall on behalf of the Beothuk Institute.  2- The Disappearance of the Beothuks               The arrival of European settlers on Beothuk territory, as well as wars with the Micmacs, created conflicts that led to the disappearance of this aboriginal people.  HISTORICAL CONTEXT There are several sources that describe the relationships between the Europeans who came to North America and most Iroquois and Algonquinduring colonization. There are fewer sources of information on the Beothuks, one of the first aboriginal tribes to meet the Europeans and who no longer exist today. Semi-nomadic, living as hunters-gatherers, the Beothuks lived in small, independent groups. Before the Europeans arrived, the Beothuks lived near the coast of Newfoundland [see Map 1: map of Newfoundland] during the summer to make the most of abundant fishing resources, and moved inland to their hunting grounds in the winter. The Europeans they met early in the 16th century were also fishermen using the area in-season; they set up fishing stations and wharves. Over time, the number of fishermen grew and they stayed in the area for increasingly longer periods.  SUMMARY OF THE CONFLICT The first meeting of the Europeans and the Beothuks was at the turn of the 16th century, when the Beothuks were to be rounded up to be shipped to Europe. The Beothuks had not given a warm welcome to the European fishermen; they did not like seeing these strangers occupying their fishing grounds each summer and destroying the surrounding forests. Nor did the Europeans like the Beothuks , because they made frequent raids to steal from the Europeans' fishing stations. After a time, when fishing communities had settled permanently in Newfoundland, a succession of European governors (including John Guy) attempted to establish friendly relations with the Beothuks, but in vain. Following these unsuccessful, and even disastrous attempts, the Beothuks, in 1616, attacked French soldiers who had been sent to Newfoundland to fight them. Driven from the coast and from the south by the Europeans, the Beothuks were forced to confront their enemies, the Micmacs. Despite Royal edictsforbidding the killing of Beothuks, the massacres continued and the tribe dwindled. However, it was more than the massacre and capture of the Beothuks that led to the disappearance of this aboriginal people. Other elements played a crucial role in their disappearance: new diseases brought over from Europe, loss of access to the bays where they once fished, as well as battles between the Micmac and Beothuk nations. It was only shortly after the death of Shanawdihit (the last known Beothuk woman) that the Europeans realized that the Beothuks were on the brink of extinction. By the time William Epps Cormack founded the "Beothuk Institution," he discovered it was already too late and that the traditional way of life of the Beothuks had been destroyed forever.   Concepts Iroquois The Iroquois nation is one of the leading Native societies in eastern North America. This sedentary society grew crops and was matrilineal. The Hurons and Iroquois were both part of the Iroquois nation.   Algonquin The Algonquin nation is one of the leading Native societies in eastern North America. This nomadic society relied primarily on hunting for food and was patrilineal.  Colonization Expansion of a country by occupying and exploiting foreign lands.  Beothuks The Beothuk nation was an aboriginal society in Eastern North America. They were semi-nomadic, living primarily from hunting, fishing, and gathering. The nation became extinct with the death of Shanawdihit in 1829.  Micmac The Micmac nation is part of the Algonquin family. They were loyal allies of the French against British colonies.  Royal edict Law proclaimed by the King concerning a particular subject.  Extinction Disappearance of an entire population. Photo
755874477892655_777214032425366 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/777214032425366 Statics : from the birth of this page Nov 13, 2015, we have 4669 daily readers, and 98,492 casual readers, 763,967 weekiy readers. All of this proves, is the history is what you, need and want. For that I am gratefully and thankful. Something is changing in me, spiritually my journey has come full circle from born Catholic to true believer in my aboriginal roots and the Great Creator. Only the Creator knows my nest steps. Status
755874477892655_777184055761697 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/777184055761697 Read this feel in your heart, and bones, become one with understanding. Love Brenda  The Sacred Seven Prayers  O Great Spirit, who art before all else and who dwells in every object, in every person and in every place, we cry unto Thee. We summon Thee from the far places into our present awareness. O Great Spirit of the North, who gives wings to the waters of the air and rolls the thick snowstorm before Thee, Who covers the Earth with a sparkling crystal carpet above whose deep tranquillity every sound is beautiful. Temper us with strength to withstand the biting blizzards, yet make us thankful for the beauty which follows and lies deep over the warm Earth in its wake.  O Great Spirit of the East, the land of the rising Sun, Who holds in Your right hand the years of our lives and in Your left the opportunities of each day. Brace us that we may not neglect our gifts nor lose in laziness the hopes of each day and the hopes of each year.  O Great Spirit of the South, whose warm breath of compassion melts the ice that gathers round our hearts, whose fragrance speaks of distant springs and summer days, dissolve our fears, melt our hatreds, kindle our love into flames of true and living realities. Teach us that he who is truly strong is also kind, he who is wise tempers justice with mercy, he who is truly brave matches courage with compassion.  O Great Spirit of the West, the land of the setting Sun, with Your soaring mountains and free, wide rolling prairies, bless us with knowledge of the peace which follows purity of striving and the freedom which follows like a flowing robe in the winds of a well-disciplined life. Teach us that the end is better than the beginning and that the setting sun glorifies not in vain.  O Great Spirit of the heavens, in the day's infinite blue and amid the countless stars of the night season, remind us that you are vast, that you are beautiful and majestic beyond all of our knowing or telling, but also that you are no further from us than the tilting upwards of our heads and the raising of our eyes.  O Great Spirit of Mother Earth beneath our feet, Master of metals, Germinator of seeds and the Storer of the Earth's unreckoned resources, help us to give thanks unceasingly for Your present bounty.  O Great Spirit of our souls, burning in our heart's yearning and in our innermost aspirations, speak to us now and always so that we may be aware of the greatness and goodness of Your gift of life and be worthy of this priceless privilege of living. Status
755874477892655_777182699095166 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/777182699095166 https://youtu.be/CYTCaPDYhOQ Link
755874477892655_777181615761941 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/777181615761941 Good Morning Brother and Sisters of the Creator  Today's History is of the Crow Tribe. Enjoy The Crow, called the Apsáalooke in their own Siouan language, or variants including Absaroka, are Native Americans, who in historical times lived in the Yellowstone River valley, which extends from present-day Wyoming, through Montana and into North Dakota, where it joins the Missouri River. Today, they are enrolled in the federally recognized Crow Tribe of Montana.[citation needed]  Pressured by the Ojibwe and Cree peoples (the Iron Confederacy), who had earlier and better access to guns through the fur trade, they had migrated there from the Ohio Eastern Woodland area to settle south of Lake Winnipeg, Canada. From there, they were pushed to the west by the Cheyennes. Both the Crow and the Cheyennes were then pushed farther west by the Lakota (Sioux), who took over the territory from the Black Hills of South Dakota to the Big Horn Mountains of Montana; the Cheyennes finally became close allies of the Sioux, but the Crows remained bitter enemies of both Sioux and Cheyennes. The Crow were generally friendly with the whites and managed to retain a large reservation of over 9300 km2 despite territorial losses.[citation needed]  Since the 19th century, Crow people have been concentrated on their reservation established south of Billings, Montana. They also live in several major, mainly western, cities. Tribal headquarters are located at Crow Agency, Montana History[edit] The name of the tribe, Apsáalooke [ə̀ˈpsáːɾòːɡè], meaning "children of the large-beaked bird",[1] was given to them by the Hidatsa, a neighboring Siouan tribe. French interpreters translated the name as gens du corbeaux ("people of [the] crows"), and they became known in English as the Crow. Other tribes also refer to the Apsáalooke as "crow" or "raven" in their own languages.[2]  In 1743 the Absaroka encountered their first people of European descent, the two La Vérendrye brothers from New France. The explorers called the Apsáalooke beaux hommes (handsome men). The Crow called the French explorers baashchíile (persons with yellow eyes).  In the Northern Plains[edit] The early home of the Crow-Hidatsa ancestral tribe was in the Ohio country, near Lake Erie. Driven from there by better armed, aggressive neighbors, they settled for a while south of Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba.[3] Later the people moved to the Devil's Lake region of North Dakota before the Crow split from the Hidatsa and moved westward. The Crow were largely pushed westward due to intrusion and influx of the Cheyenne subsequently the Sioux.  To acquire control of their new home, they warred against Shoshone bands (called Bikkaashe—"People of the Grass Lodges"),[4] and drove them westward. They allied with local Kiowa and Kiowa Apache bands.[5][6][7] The Kiowa and Kiowa Apache bands later migrated southward, and the Crow remained dominant in their established area through the 18th and 19th centuries, the era of the fur trade.  Their tribal territory stretched from what is now Yellowstone National Park and the headwaters of the Yellowstone River (E-chee-dick-karsh-ah-shay—"Elk River") in the west, north to the Musselshell River, then northeast to the Yellowstone's mouth at the Missouri River, then southeast to the confluence of the Yellowstone and Powder Rivers (Bilap chashee—"Powder River" or "Ash River"), south along the South Fork of the Powder River, confined in the SE by the Rattlesnake Mountains and westwards in the SW by the Wind River Range. Their tribal area included the river valleys of the Judith River (Buluhpa'ashe—"Plum River"), Powder River, Tongue River, Big Horn River and Wind River as well as the Bighorn Mountains (Iisiaxpúatachee Isawaxaawúua), Pryor Mountains (Baahpuuo Isawaxaawúua), Wolf Mountains (Cheetiish—"Wolf Teeth Mountains") and Absaroka Range (also called Absalaga Mountains).[8]  Once established in the Valley of the Yellowstone River[9] and its tributaries on the Northern Plains in Montana and Wyoming, the Crow divided into four groups: the Mountain Crow, River Crow, Kicked in the Bellies and Beaver Dries its Fur. Formerly semi-nomad hunters and farmers in the northeastern woodland, they picked up the nomadic lifestyle of the Plains Indians as hunters and gatherers and hunted bison. Before 1700, they were using dog travois for carrying goods. They obtained horses from the Spanish.[10][11]  Enemies and allies[edit]  Ledger drawing of a Cheyenne war chief and warriors (left) coming to a truce with a Crow war chief and warriors (right)  A scout on a horse, 1908 From about 1740, the Plains tribes rapidly adopted the horse, which allowed them to move out on to the Plains and hunt buffalo more actively. However, the severe winters in the North kept their herds smaller than those of Plains tribes in the South. The Crow, Hidatsa, Eastern Shoshone and Northern Shoshone soon became noted as horse breeders and dealers, and developed relatively large horse herds. At the time, other eastern and northern tribes were also moving on to the Plains, in search of game for the fur trade, bison, and more horses. The Crow were subject to raids and horse thefts by horse-poor tribes including the powerful Blackfoot Confederacy, Gros Ventre, Assiniboine, Pawnee, and Ute.[12][13] Later they had to face the Lakota and their allies, the Arapaho and Cheyenne, who also stole horses from their enemies. Their greatest enemies became the tribes of the Blackfoot Confederacy and the Lakota-Cheyenne-Arapaho alliance.  The Crow were generally friendly with the northern Plains tribes of the Flathead (although sometimes they had conflicts); Nez Perce, Kutenai, Shoshone, Kiowa and Kiowa Apache. The powerful Iron Confederacy (Nehiyaw-Pwat), an alliance of northern plains Indian nations based around the fur trade developed as enemies of the Crow. It was named after the dominating Plains Cree and Assiniboine peoples, and latter included the Stoney, Saulteaux, Ojibwe, and Métis.  Historical subgroups[edit] The Apsaalooke by the early 19th century were divided into three independent groupings, who came together only for common defense:[citation needed]  Ashalaho (‘Many Lodges’, today called Mountain Crow), Awaxaawaxammilaxpáake (‘Mountain People’) or Ashkúale (‘The Center Camp’). The Ashalaho or Mountain Crow, the largest Crow group, split from the Awatixa Hidatsa and were the first to travel west. (McCleary 1997: 2-3)., (Bowers 1992: 21) Their leader No Intestines had received a vision and led his band on a long migratory search for sacred tobacco, finally settling in southeastern Montana. They lived in the Rocky Mountains and foothills on the present-day Wyoming-Montana border along the Upper Yellowstone River, in the Big Horn and Absaroka Range (also Absalaga Mountains) with the Black Hills comprising the eastern edge of their territory. Binnéessiippeele (‘Those Who Live Amongst the River Banks’), today called River Crow or Ashshipíte (‘The Black Lodges’) The Binnéessiippeele, or River Crow, split from the Hidatsa proper, according to tradition because of a dispute over a bison stomach. As a result, the Hidatsa called the Crow Gixáa-iccá—"Those Who Pout Over Tripe".[14][15] They lived along the Yellowstone and Musselshell rivers south of the Missouri River and in the river valleys of the Big Horn, Powder and Wind rivers, (historically known as the Powder River Country), sometimes traveling north up to the Milk River. Eelalapito (Kicked In The Bellies) or Ammitaalasshé (‘Home Away From The Center’, that is, away from the Ashkúale - Mountain Crow).[16][17] They claimed the area known as the Bighorn Basin, from the Bighorn Mountains in the east to the Absaroka Range to the west, and south to the Wind River Range in northern Wyoming. Sometimes they settled in the Owl Creek Mountains, Bridger Mountains and along the Sweetwater River in the south.[18] The oral tradition of the Apsaalooke mentions a fourth group, the Bilapiluutche (‘Beaver Dries its Fur’), who are believed to have merged with the Kiowa in the second half of the eighteenth century.  Gradual displacement from tribal lands[edit] When white Americans arrived in numbers, the Crows were resisting heavy pressure from enemies who greatly outnumbered them. In the 1850s, a vision by Plenty Coups, a Crow boy who later became their greatest chief, was interpreted by tribal elders as meaning that the whites would become dominant over the entire country, and that the Crows, if they were to retain any of their land, would need to remain on good terms with the whites.[19]  By 1851 the more numerous Lakota and Cheyenne were established just to the south and east of Crow territory in Montana.[20] These enemy tribes coveted the hunting lands of the Crow and warred against them. By right of conquest, they took over the eastern hunting lands of the Crow, including the Powder and Tongue River valleys, and pushed the less numerous Crow to the west and northwest upriver on the Yellowstone. After about 1860, the Lakota Sioux claimed all the former Crow lands from the Black Hills of South Dakota to the Big Horn Mountains of Montana. They demanded that the Americans deal with them regarding any intrusion into these areas.  The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 with the United States confirmed as Crow lands a large area centered on the Big Horn Mountains: the area ran from the Big Horn Basin on the west, to the Musselshell River on the north, and east to the Powder River; it included the Tongue River basin.[21] But for two centuries the Cheyenne and many bands of Lakota Sioux had been steadily migrating westward across the plains, and were still pressing hard on the Crows.  "Eight Crow prisoners under guard at Crow agency, Montana, 1887" Red Cloud's War (1866–1868) was a challenge by the Lakota Sioux to the United States military presence on the Bozeman Trail, a route along the eastern edge of the Big Horn Mountains to the Montana gold fields. Red Cloud's War ended with victory for the Lakota Sioux. The Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) with the United States confirmed the Lakota control over all the high plains from the Black Hills of the Dakotas westward across the Powder River Basin to the crest of the Big Horn Mountains.[22] Thereafter bands of Lakota Sioux led by Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse and others, along with their Northern Cheyenne allies, hunted and raided throughout the length and breadth of eastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming, which had been for a time ancestral Crow territory.  On June 25, 1876 the Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne achieved a major victory over army forces under Colonel George A. Custer at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, but the Great Sioux War (1876–1877) ended in the defeat of the Sioux and their Cheyenne allies. Crow warriors enlisted with the US Army for this war. The Sioux and allies were forced from eastern Montana and Wyoming: some bands fled to Canada, while others suffered forced removal to distant reservations, primarily in present-day Montana and Nebraska west of the Missouri River.  In 1918, the Crow organized a gathering to display their culture, and they invited members of other tribes. The Crow Fair is now celebrated yearly on the third weekend of August, with wide participation from other tribes.[23] Photo
755874477892655_776647505815352 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776647505815352 Good Morning > Please close your eyes and image your on an isolated community accessible in the summer by plane, and in the winter by ice road. Now look down at the last water bottle half full, and the baby needs formula made, do I make formula, and hope the water gets here tomorrow.  Image the despair, coming off of   an addiction alone, no support. Now look at the knife in your hand that could end it all. Your letters of hope can save a life, give hope to Neskantage and this is one of many reserves I am trying to help. Please 71% of the people that read this page are women, 29% are men. Take a moment to write a letter to them , help is on the way, I am pledging with you now. E Mail it me brendaedwards@cruzonternet.com I will envelope each one and package them up , then express post them or if I can find the money I will  go there in person. Give them hope for 2016, we have a A resolution to the water issue.  STOP THE Suicides . Photo
755874477892655_776558492490920 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776558492490920 Final note: if you can read this please write a letter or note of hope for Neskantage you may save a life. Email it to me brendaedwards@cruzinternet.com 'Please and thank you   Cree Death Prayer ( fitting for all the suicides )  When I Must Leave You When I must leave you, for a little while Please do not grieve and shed wild tears and hug your sorrows to you, through the years. But start our bravely with a gallant smile and for my sake and in my name live on and do all things the same. Seed not your loneliness on empty days, but fill each waking hour in useful ways. Reach out your hand in comfort and in cheer and I in return will comfort you and hold you near; And never, never be afraid to die, for I am waiting for you in the sky!  Good night love always Brenda Status
755874477892655_776555899157846 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776555899157846 http://www.funnyordie.com/videos/31e3481b2a/let-the-people-sing-theirs-songs-of-freedom?_cc=__d___&_ccid=h81cdv.o07coe Link
755874477892655_776551729158263 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776551729158263 The War Vikings Vs Mik maq , Beothuk Together with the Beothuk on Newfoundland, the Micmac were probably the first Native Americans to have regular contact with Europeans. This may have occurred as early as the 11th century with the early Viking settlements on the coast of North America, or perhaps with Basque fishermen who visited the Grand Banks before Columbus' voyage in 1492 but kept quiet about where they were catching all their fish. The first known contact was made in 1497 by John Cabot who took three Micmac with him when he returned to England. The Micmac may not have appreciated this, since Cabot disappeared in the same area during his second voyage a few years later. Contact between Micmac and Europeans became routine immediately afterwards. Beginning in 1501, Basque, Spanish, French, British, and Irish fishing boats visited the Grand Banks every summer. By 1519 the fishermen were coming ashore to dry their catch, and trade began, mainly for furs. The fishermen found the Micmac friendly and eager to trade ...almost too eager.  By 1534 the Micmac had grown so accustomed to trading with the Europeans that when the French explorer, Jacques Cartier, dropped anchor in Chaleur Bay, he suddenly found himself surrounded by hundreds of Micmac in canoes waving beaver skins. Cartier became alarmed and fired cannon over their heads. The Micmac quickly retreated, but 300 returned the following day, and Cartier had calmed down enough by then to begin trading with them. Obviously, Cartier was not the first European to "discover" the Micmac, but France would use his explorations as the basis for their claim to the Canadian Maritimes. During his visit to the region in 1541, Cartier tried, but failed, to establish a permanent settlement on the St. Lawrence River. The French still had much to learn about survival in a wilderness. By 1578 over 400 European fishing boats were gathering every summer off the coast. The Basque established a whaling station during 1527, but no one attempted to stay through a winter. Although there were no permanent settlements at the time, European diseases had begun to decimate the Micmac population. An unknown epidemic struck the region sometime between 1564 and 1570 followed by typhus in 1586.  Sir Humphrey Gilbert and the British attempted to settle Newfoundland in 1583 but failed for the same reasons as Cartier effort in 1541, starvation and bitter cold. However, the result of these failures was that both Britain (Cabot and Gilbert) and France (Verrazano and Cartier) laid claim to the Maritimes by right of discovery. Meanwhile, Spain claimed all of North America and had the military power to discourage permanent settlements by other Europeans. It could not, however, prevent trade. Furs gotten from the Micmac created a new fashion in France of beaver hats.This quickly spread through Europe. The price of fur rose, and the French quickly saw a chance to make a lot of money. Organized fur trade began in 1581 as a private venture of Norman and Breton merchants. Although it happened on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, the destruction of the Spanish Armada off the coast of England in 1588 was an important event in Native American history. Afterwards, Spanish naval power could no longer keep other Europeans out of the New World.  That same year, Henry III of France granted a monopoly in the North American fur trade to a consortium of French merchants to secure his hold on the French throne. Henry was assassinated the following year and got very little out of this bargain, but the French merchants became rich. Permanent outposts were not built until 1604, but in the interim French trading ships made regular trips to the Micmac homeland for fur. The demand overwhelmed the resources available to the Micmac, but they solved this by becoming middlemen for the Algonquin tribes of the interior, an economic opportunity which they apparently protected through warfare. Already formidable warriors, the metal weapons received through trade with the French gave the Micmac and their allies an enormous advantage over their enemies ...a possible explanation for the sudden disappearance of the Iroquian-speaking peoples Cartier had met on the St. Lawrence River during 1534 and their replacement by Algonquin-speaking Montagnais and Algonkin sometime before 1608.  In 1604 Samuel de Champlain and Pierre De Monts established the first French settlement in North America at the mouth of the St. Croix River, the current boundary between Maine and the New Brunswick. Although it was close to both the Abenaki and Maliseet villages, the location proved a terrible choice, and the French stayed there only one winter. Frozen and flooded, half the party died of scurvy, and Champlain and the survivors moved across the Bay of Fundy to the Nova Scotia's Annapolis Basin in 1605. The new site became known as Port Royal, and was located in Micmac territory. Although this gave the Micmac a definite advantage, the French continued to trade with the Abenaki, particularly the Penobscot. The Penobscot prospered as a result, and their sachem Bashaba was able to form a powerful alliance which threatened the Micmac across the bay. The rivalry over the French fur trade aggravated earlier animosities and by 1607 escalated into the Tarrateen War which broke out between the Bashaba's Penobscot confederacy and the Micmac and their Maliseet allies.  The fighting continued for eight years. Although the French were not pleased with the warfare, they managed to trade with both sides. Meanwhile, the first Jesuit missionaries had arrived at Port Royal in 1610 and met immediate success working among the Micmac. Their first important convert was the sachem Membertou who was baptized with his entire family in 1610. Unfortunately, conversion did not protect him from epidemic, and Membertou died the following year. In spite of their war with the Micmac, the French also built a mission and trading post for the Penobscot at St Sauver Mont-Deserts de Pentagoet (Bar Harbor, Maine) in 1613. It had a brief existence, however, and was destroyed by an English raid from Jamestown, Virginia later that year. In 1615 the Micmac succeeded in killing Bashaba and in so doing won the war. During the next two years, Micmac warriors swept south through the Abenaki villages in Maine in a wave of destruction reaching as far south as Massachusetts.  Here they ran headlong into the devastating epidemics which were sweeping through the tribes in southern New England. The Micmac went home but took the sickness with them. The worst year in the Canadian Maritimes was 1617, and before the epidemic had run its course, it had killed almost three-quarters of the native population. There were not enough survivors to bury the dead, much less wage war, and the Tarrateen War was ended, not by battle, but disease. By 1620 only 4,000 Micmac remained from an original population of 20,000. Meanwhile, Champlain and the other French had discovered a more lucrative source of fur in the St. Lawrence Valley in 1608 and abandoned most of their posts in Acadia and Maine in favor of Quebec. By 1610 the French presence in the Maritimes was limited to a tiny settlement at Port Royal and single trading post on Penobscot River in Maine. While the fur trade had quickly bypassed the Micmac, the long struggle between Britain and France for control of their homeland was just beginning.  British settlement in North America had begun in Virginia at Jamestown in 1607, but as a result of Cabot's voyage in 1497, Britain claimed the entire eastern seaboard north of the Carolinas (including Canada). Because of this, the Plymouth Company attempted to start a colony at the mouth of the Kennebec River in Maine during 1607. This failed in less than a year, because, according to the French, the British abused the Abenaki living nearby. The British, however, were serious about enforcing their claims and in 1613 made their first attempt to remove the French from "their territory." In the fall, a naval expedition from Jamestown destroyed both the Mont-Deserts mission and Port Royal. French and Jesuits prisoners were set adrift in a small boat to die but were able to reach the Micmac who fed them that winter and saved their lives. Micmac captured in the raid were not so fortunate. The British sold them as slaves.  Already strongly attached to the French through religion and marriage, the incident served to convince the Micmac the British were enemies. By 1616 the French had rebuilt Port Royal and opened new posts at Cape Sable and the St. John and Penobscot Rivers. The British returned in 1619 and burned Port Royal for a second time, and the French rebuilt again. After settlement of Massachusetts in 1620, the British got serious. King James I of Britain (formerly James VI of Scotland) gave Acadia to Sir William Alexander who renamed it New Scotland, or Nova Scotia. Taking advantage of a European war between Britain and France, a British fleet under David Lewis and Thomas Kirke left Boston in 1628 for Port Royal. Kirke trapped and defeated a French fleet there and then moved into the St. Lawrence to capture Quebec. The British held Canada for the next four years with disastrous consequences for the Huron and Algonkin (French allies) who were fighting the Iroquois (Dutch allies).  In 1629 Alexander attempted to found a British colony in Acadia with Scottish settlers. They established themselves at Charles fort (Scotch Fort) five miles south of then-abandoned Port Royal. However, in 1632 the Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye restored Quebec and Maritimes to France. This date marks the beginning the real Anglo-French struggle for North America, since the French had also decided to become serious. Actually, it began in 1627 when Cardinal Richelieu, the powerful chief minister of France under Louis XIII, had encouraged the formation of the Company of New France (Compagnie de la Nouvelle-France), popularly known as the Company of the Hundred Associates (Compagnie des Cent-Associés) for the purpose of settling Canada. The war with Britain delayed things until 1632, but afterwards, the French presence in North America increased dramatically. Richelieu sent his cousin, Isaac de Razilly, as governor with 300 men (and some women) to colonize Acadia.  The French reoccupied Port Royal, expelled the Scots, and burned the British trading post on the Penobscot River. In 1633 they attacked the remaining British post at Machias, Maine and warned Boston traders to remain south of the Kennebec River. Rather than bringing about a confrontation with the Micmac, the new French settlement was mutually beneficial and drew them even closer. The Acadians concentrated in the vicinity of Port Royal and Grand Pre. They built their homes near the bay rather than clearing away forest land like the English, and as a result, their presence did little to disturb the Micmac's lifestyle, and during the 160 years the French were in Acadia, they never needed a single treaty to remain at the peace with them. It would seem that the French had more trouble getting along with each other. During the 1640s, rival fur traders Charles La Tour and Charles D'Ulnay fought for control of Acadia in what amounted to a French civil war. While La Tour was in Boston buying supplies from the British, his rival attacked his trading post. Most of La Tour's men were hanged, and his wife Marie died in prison three weeks later. La Tour was forced to remain in hiding until D'Ulnay was drowned in a canoe accident.  Acadia, however, was not the only place the French and British were contesting. Both claimed Newfoundland. Although European fishermen had shared the island since the 1500s, Britain claimed it outright, while France did likewise as a result Cartier's explorations. As a result, both French and British settlements developed on the island: the British at Conception Bay in 1610 and the French at Placentia during the 1650s. Micmac frequently visited Newfoundland to take advantage of the extraordinary fishing, and their relations with the resident Beothuk had usually been friendly. In 1613, however, a Beothuk uprising had killed 30 French fishermen. To protect themselves from further incidents, the French encouraged the Micmac to settle permanently around St. George Bay in southwestern Newfoundland. This blocked Beothuk access to the coast, and one thing led to another. When fighting broke out, the French provided the Micmac with firearms and, according to some accounts, paid bounties for Beothuk scalps. The Micmac deny this and blame the story on the British. Hard evidence is lacking to support scalp bounties, but the Micmac did drive the Beothuk into the interior with its limited resources. By 1827 the Beothuk were extinct.  By 1643 the growing French population in Acadia was giving Puritans in New England nightmares about a French fleet sailing into Boston harbor and burning the town. They solved their fears by attacking the French first. In 1654 Robert Sedgwick's fleet from Boston captured Port Royal and the other French settlements on the Bay of Fundy. The British held Acadia for thirteen years this time until it was returned to France by the Treaty of Breda (1667). While the British and French traded places in Acadia and Maine, Micmac loyalty to the French never wavered, but they only rarely were involved in the fighting. This changed in 1675 when the Abenaki were drawn into the King Philip's War with the New England colonists. By the end of 1676, Philip and most of his followers were dead, and his uprising crushed. Unfortunately, the war did not end here for the Abenaki. Thousands of refugees, filled with hatred for the British, fled north and joined the Abenaki, and the King Philip's War continued, with brief interruptions, for more than 80 years.  To fight the British and their Mohawk allies, the Abenaki organized into a confederacy. Its membership soon expanded to include the Maritimes tribes: Maliseet, Passamaquoddy, and Micmac. The French both encouraged this alliance and supplied it with arms to block British expansion northward from New England and to protect Quebec and Acadia from British invasion in case of war. With the outbreak of the King William's War (1688-97) between Britain and France, the Abenaki Confederation did exactly that. Throughout the war, the British never made a serious attempt to take Acadia. An expedition under William Philips sacked Port Royal in 1690 and took the French governor prisoner, but the French recaptured it in 1692. Offensively, Abenaki and Micmac raids terrorized New England throughout the war and by 1695 had forced the abandonment of almost all of its frontier settlements. Britain and France ended their war in 1697, but it took two more years to stop the fighting between New England and the Abenaki. Even then, it was only a brief truce.  Raids resumed with the Queen Anne's War (1701-13), but this time they were not enough to keep the British out of the Maritimes. The French population in Acadia had grown to 3,000, but New England colonists in New England outnumbered them almost fifteen to one. After two attempts to take the French fort on the Penobscot River failed in 1701, New England went on the defensive. In February, 1704 an Abenaki raid from Canada destroyed Deerfield, Massachusetts, and the British changed strategy. With the coming of warmer weather, they finally captured the French forts on the Penobscot River and Passamaquoddy Bay, but were repulsed at Port Royal in July. Port Royal defended itself against two more assaults during 1707 but, after a long siege by General Francis Nicholson, surrendered in October, 1710. The British kept it for the rest of the war by using Mohawk warriors to track Micmac and Abenaki raiders. In 1713 the Treaty of Utrecht gave Nova Scotia (Acadia) and Newfoundland to Great Britain.  Having seen Acadia change hands many times, no one except the British government believed this would be permanent. French settlers from Newfoundland moved to Cape Breton Island and during 1720 built the massive fortress at Louisbourgh which dominated the entire area, and the Acadian French refused to sign an oath of loyalty to Great Britain. Although the Micmac, Maliseet, and Abenaki had signed a peace treaty with New England at Portsmouth, New Hampshire in 1713, they still refused to recognize British authority in Acadia. Acadia had become Nova Scotia, but it was British in name only. Trouble was immediate. The first concern of the British was to secure their fishing rights, so they were content to allow the French maintain their trade with the Micmac to keep everyone happy. This was a mistake. The French not only continued trade (upon which the Micmac had become dependent) but also provided large annual gifts to the Micmac keep their friendship and allegiance.  There was no way the British could compete with this, since their government in London provided only limited funds for gifts for British allies - something the Micmac definitely were not. To maintain peace, the first British governors of Nova Scotia were often forced in desperation to pay for gifts to Micmac out their own pockets. Even then, the Micmac perception of the British was that they were stingy. Meanwhile, the French population in Acadia avoided every attempt to get them to take a loyalty oath and was patiently waiting for their return to France. This was considered inevitable just as long as British colonists did not settle in the area. However, that was exactly what was happening. Trouble began in 1717 as settlement from New England began to expand northward into Abenaki lands along the coast of Maine as well as the Connecticut Valley of southern Vermont and New Hampshire. The French fought back through their Jesuit missionaries (most notably Father Sebastian Rasles), who encouraged the Abenaki and Micmac to resist the encroachment with violence if necessary.  Conferences between New England and Abenaki representatives during 1717 and 1719 failed to reach any agreement. Since the Micmac, Maliseet, and Passamaquoddy were part of the Abenaki confederation, tension was also building in the Canadian Maritimes with the very real possibility of a major uprising. Trying to keep the Micmac at peace in 1721, the British governor of Nova Scotia called a meeting with Micmac at Annapolis Royal (formerly Port Royal) at which promises were made for increased trade and larger annual presents. The Micmac, however, were not satisfied by just promises and remained restless keeping the British garrisons in Nova Scotia on constant alert. After several violent confrontations on the New England frontier in 1722, Massachusetts declared war on the Abenaki. Dummer's War (English-Indian War, Räle War, or Father Rasles' War) was New England's last major Indian war and lasted until 1725. A separate, but related, conflict (Grey Lock's War, Lovewell's War) with the Sokoki in western New England continued for another two years.  In 1724 a colonial army attacked and burned Norridgewock on Maine's upper Kennebec River. Not only was the Jesuit priest Sebastian Rasles killed in this battle, but the British mutilated his corpse. From the onset of the fighting, the French in Quebec were tempted to intervene on behalf of the Abenaki, but they chose to remain neutral because the British were threatening to deport the French population. For the same reason, the Acadian French had discouraged the Micmac from joining the Abenaki in the conflict. However, this changed with the brutal circumstances of Rasles' death. The Acadians were furious, and the killing of one of their priests by New England militia brought them to the point of open rebellion in Acadia. No longer restrained, 50 Micmac warriors retaliated and attacked the British garrison at Annapolis Royal killing two soldiers and wounding 12 others. The British, with some justification, felt the Acadians were responsible.  The Abenaki suffered another defeat at the hands of New England the following spring after which resistance ended. In December, 1725 they agreed to a peace with Massachusetts finally ratified at Falmouth the following August. The Micmac and Maliseet also signed a treaty at Boston agreeing to peace and acknowledging British authority over their homeland. This officially ended Dummer's War, but French and Micmac resistance to the British in Acadia was just no longer passive. As long as the British garrisons confined themselves to their forts, there was little trouble, but travel into Micmac controlled areas of the interior was dangerous. The Acadians still refused to take any oath of allegiance to Great Britain, and in 1732 a large group left Nova Scotia for New Brunswick and settled at Ste. Anne's Point on the St. Johns River to escape the British pressure to do so. Meanwhile, French priests and traders were active among the Micmac. Annual presents, trade goods, and firearms arrived every year from Ille Royal, and British protests demanding the French stop this were ignored. New British forts and restrictions placed on the movement of French priests only added to the worsening situation.  In 1744 Britain and France went to war again - this time in a dispute over who should sit on the throne of Austria. The War of Austrian Sucession spread from Europe to North America where it was known as the King George's War (1744-48). All the smoldering resentment of the last 29 years of British occupation erupted throughout the Canadian Maritimes, and the Micmac and Maliseet attacked the British outposts. Massachusetts declared war in 1744 against the Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, and St. John Indians (actually the Maliseet and Micmac). The Penobscot, Kennebec, and Passamaquoddy from Maine also joined the fighting, and the British were overwhelmed. The French immediately tried and failed to retake Port Royal in 1744. They tried again the following year, but this, as well as an attack on Cape Breton Island, was also repulsed. Even so, by the end of 1745 the British were besieged inside their forts. Their only military unit still able to operate effectively was the solitary Ranger Company of John Gorham, a group of few white frontiersmen and 50 Mohawk warriors recruited by Sir William Johnson in New York.  The French Acadians were officially neutral but so open in their sympathy for the Micmac that Governor Shirley of Massachusetts in 1746 demanded their removal from Nova Scotia. This easily could have happened if a 4,000 man combined British and colonial army had not captured Louisbourgh in June, 1745. The capture of Louisbourgh was the major British victory during the war. It not only removed the immediate threat of invasion to Nova Scotia but permitted the British naval blockade of Canada which eventually brought the French to their knees. However, it did not stop Micmac and Abenaki attacks which continued throughout Nova Scotia and northern Maine until a year after the end of the war. Between 1747 and 1749, there was a lot of bushwhacking and ambush in the Maritimes which kept Gorham's Rangers very busy. Even though crippled by the loss of Louisbourgh, the French were still dangerous, and an attack in February, 1747 wiped out the British garrison at Grand Pre (Grand Pre Massacre). During 1748, however, the French ended their support for the Micmac on Cape Breton which ended most of the fighting in that vicinity.  The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle settled the problem France and Britain had with each other about the Austrian throne, but neither side was willing to concede control of the Canadian Maritimes. To the total outrage and disgust of the New England colonies, the treaty returned the fortress at Louisbourgh to the French. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 had failed to define the border between Nova Scotia and Quebec. Taking advantage of this and their alliance with the Abenaki and Maliseet, the French began in 1749 to re-occupy the St. John Valley in New Brunswick. At the same time, the British decided the solution to control of the Maritimes was to populate it with British colonists. In June, 1749 Colonel Edward Cornwallis arrived as the new governor of Nova Scotia accompanied by 2,500 new settlers. After founding the city of Halifax, he made peace overtures to the Abenaki and Maliseet using the ranger captain John Gorham as his emissary. The result was a peace treaty signed at Halifax with the Maliseet and Abenaki, but the strength of this agreement was indicated by the fact the Maliseet celebrated the signing with a war dance on the decks of Cornwallis' ship.  The Micmac did not sign any peace agreement with the British that year. They had suffered a severe smallpox epidemic during 1747, and the French had accused the British of deliberate infection. Whether true or not, the Micmac believed the French and were so angry about this, they refused to make peace. In this decision, they had the full support of a French priest, Father Le Loutre (the new Rasles). Settlements at Chebucto and Canso were attacked during the summer of 1749. Especially galling to the British was the capture of an army detachment at Canso which later had to be ransomed from the French commandant at Louisbourgh. The British refused to declare war reasoning that, since the Micmac were supposed to have submitted to British authority in Nova Scotia at the Treaty of Boston (1726), they could be treated as rebels, not enemies. In other words, no rules of civilized warfare. Offering £10 for every Micmac scalp or prisoner, Cornwallis dispatched the Cobb expedition with 100 men to hunt down and kill Micmac. In addition to the usual £10 for scalps or prisoner, Cornwallis offered an additional incentive of £100 for the capture of Le Loutre.  Cobb's expedition destroyed just about everything they found, but Micmac resistance only stiffened. By 1750 the price of scalps was raised from £10 to £50 which provided incentive for the formation of two additional ranger companies under Captains William Clapham and Francis Bartelo. During 1751 the fighting continued across the Chigneto Isthmus of Nova Scotia, but by summer Cornwallis ordered all ranger companies (except Gorham's) to disband. Too many strange scalps had been turned in for payment, including several which bore unmistakable signs of European origin. The French were still providing arms to the Chignecto Micmac - who were still dangerous and under the hostile influence of Father Le Loutre - but sending hired killers after them was never going to solve the situation. Cornwallis' decision ultimately proved correct, and in November, 1752 at Halifax, the Micmac signed a peace treaty with the British.  Unfortunately, the peace lasted less than two years and ended with the outbreak of the French and Indian War (1755-63). The last French/British confrontation for control of North America, the war began in 1755 with a disaster for the British when Braddock's army was destroyed near Fort Duquesne in western Pennsylvania. Micmac raids against isolated settlements in Nova Scotia began that first year with British fishing boats as particular target. At the same time, the Penobscot raided frontier settlements in Maine. As French victories mounted, the British decided they would no longer treat the French in Acadia as neutrals. Governor Cornwallis had threatened deportation many times if they did not take the oath, and in response, approximately one-third of the Acadians moved to New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and French territory during 1752. But in the end, Cornwallis never followed through with his threats. However, he was replaced as governor in 1754 by Charles Lawrence.  Lawrence was serious, and the expulsion carried out in 1755 under his administration was quick, efficient and cruel. 7,000 Acadians who had refused the oath were imprisoned, stripped of their possessions, and deported. Many ended up in British prisons for the duration of the war. The others were dispersed throughout the English colonies in the south where, for obvious reasons, they were very unwelcome guests. More than one-third were lost at sea or died disease. Many years would pass before many of the deportees would relocate to Spanish Louisiana where they would become known as the Cajuns. Most of their land was taken over by British settlers who soon arrived from New England. However, not all of the Acadians left quietly, and the British were never able to capture all of them. Many escaped into the forests and fought a guerilla war beside the Micmac. One such Acadian was Joseph Broussard who continued to fight the British in New Brunswick until finally captured in 1758.  For the Micmac, the deportation was almost as traumatic as it was for the French. Roman Catholic and intermarried with the French for several generations, many Acadians were close relatives, and it is difficult to imagine anything the British could have done which would have enraged the Micmac more. They attacked the British army forts and the new settlements of the New England colonists the forts were intended to protect. By 1756 the British in Nova Scotia were once again paying bounties for Micmac scalps, this time £30 for warrior scalps and £25 for women and children prisoners. The French in Quebec welcomed the warfare in Nova Scotia, and Governor Duquesne of Canada sent secret instructions to Father Le Loutre urging him to keep the Micmac at war and prevent them from making a separate peace with the British. The British fought back with a series of small forts and ranger companies, but Maliseet and Micmac warriors kept them mostly confined to the immediate vicinity of their forts.  Slowly, the British were able to overcome the initial French successes. Fort Beausejour in New Brunswick was captured in 1757, and in 1758 the British army swept through the remaining Acadian settlements on the St. John River destroying everything in their path. French resistance slackened after the fall of Louisbourgh in 1758 which opened the way for a British invasion of the St. Lawrence Valley. With the capture of Quebec in September, the war in North America was mostly over, although a peace was not actually signed until 1763. Montreal held out until 1760, but an attempt by the French fleet that year to break the British blockade and bring reinforcements to Quebec ended in defeat at a naval battle fought near Restigouche which involved Micmac and Acadians. After years of fighting, peace did not settle over the region uniformly or immediately. Several groups of the Micmac reluctantly accepted the outcome and, along with the Passamaquoddy and Malecite, signed treaties with the British during 1760. The majority of the Micmac followed suit in 1761, but Rogers Rangers were required to expel the French from their last outposts along the upper St. John River in 1760.  Despite the peace signed in 1760, when the British first tried to settle to the lower St. John in 1762, the Maliseet warned survey crews to remain well-down the river. What they could expect if they proceeded farther upstream was left unspoken. It was not until 1768 that settlement was able to push inland, and lasting treaties with the Maliseet were not signed until 1770 and 1776. At the end of the American Revolution in 1783, 14,000 badly abused British loyalists left the newly-formed United States and settled in New Brunswick. The Maliseet homeland on the St. John River was overrun in the process. Not all Micmac made peace with the British in 1760-61, and some bands in the interior remained hostile until 1779. During the American Revolution, the Micmac generally favored the Americans ...probably because they felt the overthrow of the British would restore French rule. The feeling persisted. Years later during the War of 1812, they chose to remain neutral at their own request. The Micmac have been at peace since 1779, and treaties signed during the early 1800s established the reserves which the Micmac still occupy in the Canadian Maritimes. Photo
755874477892655_776549095825193 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776549095825193 https://youtu.be/m3kO851xo9k Link
755874477892655_776548155825287 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776548155825287 Good Evening Brothers and Sisters of world:  On the topic of Neskantaga First Nations getting the water issues fixed, I can not and will not take credit for it, I believe it was probably in the works and the timing of the announcement was just luck. Mr. Trudeau is trying to make good on his election promises, But I have little faith in government for the long haul.  One must clean up your our back yard, before moving in new neighbors. (Get what I am referring to without saying it).    I have one Tribe to research and one war tonight:  Inuinnait (Copper Inuit) Social organization was based on kinship and on various types of formal partnership, and affiliation between individuals tended to be more a matter of personal choice than is usually found among other Inuit groups. The Inuinnait, also known as the Copper Inuit because of their extensive use of artifacts made from the native copper deposits of the region, originally occupied Banks and Victoria islands and the adjacent mainland region of the central Canadian Arctic. In the early 20th century, they numbered about 800 people, divided into numerous regional bands averaging about 50. Several bands would combine during the winter when engaged in hunting seals. At this season they lived in large snow-house communities on the sea ice, moving to new areas as the local seal population was hunted out. In the spring these communities broke up and the bands moved to specific areas on the coasts, from where they travelled into the interior in search of caribou, muskoxen and fish. Throughout the summer they moved about the interior within defined territories, in small groups of one or a few families, living in skin tents. Caribou hunting was intensified in late summer, and people began to gather at points along the coast where the women prepared winter clothing. Social organization was based on kinship and on various types of formal partnership, and affiliation between individuals tended to be more a matter of personal choice than is usually found among other Inuit groups. Religion was based on shamanism, with the shaman charged primarily with curing the sick and providing good hunting. Religion, language and most other aspects of the culture were similar to those of other central arctic Inuit groups, of whom the Inuinnait were the most westerly. Archaeology indicates that the Inuinnait are descended from a group of Thule Culture people who moved into the area shortly after 1000 AD and adapted their maritime way of life to seal and caribou resources. During the cooler climate of the Little Ice Age of the 17th to 19th centuries, these people abandoned the permanent winter houses and other elements of their Thule ancestors. Traditionally, hunting weapons including arrows, harpoon and spear heads, and tools such as knife blades and chisels were formed from copper and used for personal use and for trade with other nations. Greater nomadism and increasing exposure and involvement with imported European technology gave rise to the distinctive culture of the historic Inuinnait. Regular European contact began during the early 20th century, involving the Inuinnait in a trapping economy. However, in addition to trade, the European contact brought diseases including influenza, typhoid and smallpox epidemics that devastated the Inuinnait population. Most Inuinnait now live in the villages of Sachs Harbour, Ulukhaktok (also known as Uluqsaqtuua), which means "where there is copper" in Inuktitut; Kugluktuk; Bathurst Inlet; and Cambridge Bay. In 1984 the communities of Sachs Harbour and Holman [Ulukhaktok] were included in the Inuvialuit Land Claims Agreement. Other settlements were negotiated as part of the creation of Nunavut. See also Aboriginal People: Arctic. Photo
755874477892655_776325522514217 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776325522514217 Neskantaga First Nation letters of hope challenge remember please. I am going to look pretty silly sending 3 letters when I need 250. Please and thank-you. Status
755874477892655_776322475847855 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776322475847855 https://www.gofundme.com/aboriginalpeoplema Link
755874477892655_776149549198481 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776149549198481 Indigenous People Matter shared Billy Mills's photo. Photo
755874477892655_776146042532165 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776146042532165 https://youtu.be/zzcldDGzdPA Link
755874477892655_776143929199043 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776143929199043 https://youtu.be/T46qNOKGmVM Link
755874477892655_776143849199051 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776143849199051 GOOD Morning Family and Friends here is your History for today :Passamaquoddy Tribe - Pleasant Point  Pleasant Point Reservation is located in the easternmost region of the United States, in the town of Perry, Washington County, Maine, on a narrow peninsula leading to the island community of Eastport. The Reservation consists of 115 acres deeded to the tribe by the state plus 216 acres of annexed land adjacent to the original parcel.  The Passamaquoddy Tribe, also known as Sipayik (meaning: along the edge) is an indigenous Native American Tribe of eastern Maine/Maritime Canada. Culturally, the Passamaquoddy are one of several tribes of the Abnaki group. The Passamaquoddy people have inhabited this region of Downeast Maine and Maritime Canada since the time of their forebears and thus have a strong sense of belonging to the land.  Pleasant Point is one of two Reservations of the Passamaquoddy Tribe. Indian Township Reservation is located inland about 50 miles from Pleasant Point. Each of the two Reservations has separate governing systems, and the federal government recognizes each. Elected Tribal Council forms the major governing body for the Tribe. Tribal members elect a Tribal Governor, who serves as the chief administrator for the community. Passamaquoddy Indian Township and Pleasant Point Council hold joint council meetings with both governing bodies. Serving the Council and Governor is the Lieutenant Governor and an extensive staff of Tribal administrators including program managers for Bureau of Indian Affairs, Indian Health Service, and other federal contracts or grants.  The Passamaquoddy Tribe has an evolving land resource. The current 330 acres comprise the Reservation and annexed areas that provide for housing, economic development, and recreation to tribal members. The impact of the Passamaquoddy people on this evolving land resource will have to be carefully managed so that it will retain its environmental qualities and so that it will be preserved for future generations. The balance of badly needed economic development and long-term preservation of the environment is the focus of the Tribe’s environmental program. There are other land holdings off the Reservation, in the towns of Perry and Robbinston, which are expected to provide long-term economic benefit through sustainable development. These fee and trust lands will also have to be carefully managed. Knowledge of the actual quality and specific makeup of the various lands, waters, and air is being expanded. The Environmental Department’s GPS/GIS technician has completed accurate and precise mapping of the Tribal boundaries, and wetland delineation of the reservation, both fresh and saltwater, is completed.  The Reservation is bordered on its north side by Passamaquoddy Bay and on its south side by Cobscook Bay. These two bays are part of the traditional fishing grounds of the Passamaquoddy Tribe. In addition to these water resources are various other wetlands, lakes, and ponds on tribal lands in the towns of Perry and Robbinston  This Tribe has identified the following five objectives for developing its Tribal environmental Program: 1) All Tribal waters will be clean and healthy; 2) all Tribal lands, ecosystems, homes, and workplaces will have clean and healthy air; 3) Tribal government will work to continue its traditional practice of protecting and preserving the wondrous resources of the Great Mother Earth; 4) No waste or pollution will threaten Tribal Resources and 5) Foster environmental learning and stewardship among the Tribes youth, the community and Tribal leadership.   Accomplishments  The Passamaquoddy Tribe at Pleasant Point Environmental Department works under these broad goals:  Protect Tribal waters and related aquatic and marine ecosystems Protect foods and medicines consumed by Tribal members Foster environmental learning and stewardship among the Tribe’s Youth, the community, Tribal leadership, and the general public Protect Tribal lands and waters from improperly disposed wastes and accidental chemical spills. EPA provides grant funding under Performance Partnership Grant (PPG), air, lead, OECA, and other programs to the Tribe to support the tribe in meeting their environmental goals. The Tribe has treatment similar to that of a state (TAS) in the EPA Lead, CWA 106, 319 programs.  Water Quality  Salt water testing, in cooperation with the Cobscook Bay Resource Center and the DMR, of both Passamaquoddy and Cobscook Bays analyzes fecal coliform and phytoplankton. Shoreline surveys are conducted to look for problem septic systems. These monitoring efforts are to protect and restore clam flats in the area. Salt water quality monitoring of chlorophyll and other parameters are being conducted to determine changes in primary productivity and impacts that might occur from the salmon farming industry.  Fish tissue testing has been done in both bays for heavy metals and dioxins. There are plans to expand this program in the future years.   A multi-media study that incorporates air pollution modeling and monitoring to predict the types of toxins that might be in the sustenance foods, analysis of the foods, and a tribal food consumption survey is being conducted.  This will help determine the risk the tribal members are exposed to and will help determine strategies to lower the risks.  Fresh Water quality parameters of streams and ponds on Tribal trust blueberry lands in Columbia Falls have been established. Monitoring of water withdrawal for irrigation is ongoing at T19. Boyden Lake water chemistry, the source of the Tribe’s drinking water, is being monitored to determine the impact of the renewed alewife run, due to the Tribe’s repair of the fish ladder in Boyden Stream.  The department is actively participating in ME DEP’s rulemaking for permitting of toxicity effluent discharges. The department has voiced concerns of sediment contamination, importance of a healthy Passamaquoddy Bay, and the need to access chemicals that are not being studied or analyzed.  Wetlands  Wetland delineation, function, and value assessments are being done for all wetlands on the reservation and surrounding fee lands. Wetlands support animals and plants that are culturally important to the Tribe are being identified and protected. Tribal Council has reviewed and approved the Department’s Wetlands Management Plan.  Natural Resource Inventory  Tribal lands are being surveyed to map all natural resources from soils to wildlife habitants. These inventories provide the information necessary to make land use decisions important to the Passamaquoddy Tribe.  GIS & GPS  All mapping is done utilizing GIS computer programs and a GPS unit to collect data in the field. This technology allows the tribe to have updated maps for the Tribal infrastructure, housing, and natural resource information.  Lead Program  This program is conducted in conjunction with the Health Center. Tribal children are tested for lead. Testing is available for housing and soils. Lead hazard awareness is done through the health center, housing authority, and the daycare center.  Air Quality Program  The department goal is to contribute to the regional air quality monitoring in Washington County, Community awareness of ozone and alerts for high ozone forecasts using Sipayik News Bulletin and Tribal TV. The Tribe has an air quality analysis shelter monitoring weather data, ozone, PM2.5.  The Tribe submits data directly to the AQS system, and real-time data is available from the Tribe’s website.  The Environmental Department has 2 licensed technicians for sampling indoor air quality, specifically for mold and radon contamination.  A number of older homes on the reservation have unhealthy levels of these toxins, almost certainly contributing to respiratory illness and potentially cancer and other diseases.  FERC Dam Relicensing  Two dams affecting Tribal lands are in the process of federal relicensing; GNP at Canada Falls Lake and Domtar at the St. Croix River. Both environmental departments monitor these proceedings, attend meetings, and report to Joint Council. tory: The Maliseet and Passamaquoddy people were closely related neighbors who shared a common language, but though the French referred to both tribes collectively as Etchemins, they always considered themselves politically independent. The tribes of the east coast were confusing to Europeans, who couldn't understand why dozens of small groups of Native Americans lived together yet claimed to be separate nations. What they didn't realize was that these groups had not always been so small. European diseases decimated the Indian populations--the Passamaquody were 20,000 strong before European contact, and no more than 4000 afterwards--and they regrouped as best they could. The Maliseet and Passamaquoddy, near relatives and long-time allies who spoke dialects of the same language, banded together against European and Iroquoian aggression with their neighbors the Abenakis, Penobscots, and Micmacs. This Wabanaki Confederacy was no more than a loose alliance, however, and the tribes never gave up their sovereignty. Today the Passamaquoddy live primarily in the United States and the Maliseet in Canada, but the distinction between the two is not imposed by those governments--the two tribes have always been politically distinct entities. Photo
755874477892655_776079622538807 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776079622538807 I am sorry to bother you again but this is great moment.  http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/thunder-bay/liberals-to-fund-water-plant-for-neskantaga-first-nation-in-2016-1.3383072. I had nothing to do with this, but funny it was announced 10 hours into your challenge. Thank you Great Creator Prayers Answered. Link
755874477892655_776059179207518 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776059179207518 https://youtu.be/HoxJ9zwCIhA Link
755874477892655_776057952540974 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776057952540974 Good Evening my Family and you are all my family.  I am going pack alot into this post so you don't get bombed with multiple posts.  First - write your letter of hope I need 250 at least please. 2- I have sent a letter of engagement to Neskantage First Nations band manager following proper protocol .  3- The suicide prevention line for Aboriginal People Nationally is fairly inexpensive , but the long distance charges may kill me, so that where the new go fund me page come in.  https://www.gofundme.com/tcgrhjn6?pc=fb_co_sh_g we have volunteers to man the line also.  4- we have two water treatment options, both cost money, we will see how the band responds to that.  \Finally tonight's History:   James Bay Cree  A brief history of Cree From trap lines to power lines, CG traces the James Bay Cree-outsiders’ exchange By Diana Gee-Silverman  From trading pelts for axes to deals involving millions of dollars and jobs in exchange for land rights, the relationship between the James Bay Cree and the people who have taken an interest in their traditional lands has involved a lot of give and take. Follow this centuries-old exchange from early European colonists to the present.  1600s - As French explorers move westward in the early 17th century, they encounter the Swampy Cree, whom they call the ‘Cristinaux,’ an Ojibwa word denoting a member of a band living south of James Bay. This term is later shortened and came to be used to refer to all Cree.  May 2, 1670 - The Hudson’s Bay Company is incorporated. The Royal Charter of the Hudson’s Bay Company is granted by King Charles II of England, giving the company control of an area called Rupert’s Land, which accounts for one-third of present-day Canada.  From the beginning, the Cree are closely related with the company, which eventually establishes a trading post on Waswanipi Lake. As hunters and prime suppliers of pelts, the Cree are drawn into the fur trade with the French and the English. Pelts are traded for axes, guns, ammunition, blankets and flour. The Cree soon become middlemen, establishing treaties with other First Nations, notably the Plains Assiniboine and the Blackfoot.   Advertisement   1870 – Rupert’s Land becomes a part of the Dominion of Canada. Over time the territory will be divided into several Canadian provinces, including Ontario, Quebec north of the Laurentians, Manitoba, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta and what is now eastern Nunavut.  Early 1900s - The only non-Native presence in Cree territory in northern Quebec consists of the Hudson’s Bay Company staff, missionaries and the federal department responsible for Indian Affairs.  1960s – Quebec begins the process of mass resource extraction. Consequently, the James Bay Cree are continually uprooted.  1971 – The Quebec governmentannounces plansfor the James Bay Project in northern Quebec. The massive hydropower development plans to build a series of dams, reservoirs and power stations on the Grand River that will cover an area 30 times the size of Prince Edward Island. The James Bay Cree, fearing the project will destroy their traditional way of life and damage the environment, lobby against the project.  15 November 1973 - The Quebec Association of Indians, an ad hoc political body of native northern Quebecers, wins an injunction, blocking hydroelectric development until the province has negotiated an agreement with the First Nations. This judgement is overruled by the Quebec Court of Appeal seven days later. Nonetheless, the province is still legally required to negotiate a treaty covering the territory, even as construction continues.  1974 - The Grand Council of the Crees, representing nine Northern Quebec Cree communities, is created in opposition to hydro-development to protect Cree rights during negotiations between the Eeyouch and the Quebec and Canadian governments . The Grand Council, founded by Cree leaders, is intended to be the official channel of Cree communications.  November 11, 1975 – The federal government, the Quebec provincial government and representatives from each of the James Bay Cree communities sign the first of the “modern treaties,” the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement . Under the agreement the Cree receive $225 million in compensation and give up their claim to certain land in northern Quebec. As part of the agreement Cree communities also gain special hunting and fishing rights and more opportunity for self-government.  1979 – Phase one of the James Bay Project is completed.  1986 – The Quebec government announces plans for the Great Whale Project, which would dam and divert five rivers that flow into Hudson Bay and flood over 3,500 square kilometres of Cree and Inuit treaty land along the Great Whale River in northern Quebec. The power generated from the project will mostly be exported to the United States. The James Bay Cree join environmental groups to launch a highly publicized campaign to stop the project.  1991 – Under the direction of Grand Chief Matthew Coon Come, the Cree launch a protest of the Great Whale project. They take out a full-page advertisement in the New York Times and canoe from Hudson Bay to New York City to lobby potential U.S. electricity customers. The protest is highly publicized.  1994 – The Quebec government cancels the Great Whale Project, in part because of public concern over its potential impact on the environment and Cree and Inuit communities.  2002 -- The Cree and the Government of Quebec sign the landmark Agreement Concerning a New Relationship, also known as Paix des Braves. Far more than an economic deal, this is seen as a "nation to nation" agreement.  Paix des Braves allows for continued hydroelectric development in exchange for Cree employment in the hydroelectric industry and $3.5 billion in financing over 50 years. In Cree communities, the agreement means development through the expansion of infrastructure, including housing, community centres, health services and expanded opportunities in educatiion  © 2015 Canadian Geographic Enterprises  Tonight's Quote of hope :  You must teach your children that the ground beneath their feet is the ashes of our grandfathers. So that they will respect the land, tell your children that the earth is rich with the lives of our kin. Teach your children what we have taught our children, that the earth is our mother. Whatever befalls the earth befalls the sons of the earth. If men spit upon the ground they spit upon themselves. This we know. The earth does not belong to man; man belongs to the earth. This we know. All things are connected like the blood which unites one family. All things are connected.  - Chief Seattle Link
755874477892655_776019735878129 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/776019735878129 I need your letters of hope remember . Status
755874477892655_775899165890186 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775899165890186 https://www.gofundme.com/tcgrhjn6?pc=fb_co_sh_g Link
755874477892655_775877482559021 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775877482559021 https://youtu.be/41nngkxeAWg Link
755874477892655_775876679225768 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775876679225768 Today's tribal history is  The Mississauga are a subtribe of the Anishinaabe-speaking First Nations people located in southern Ontario, Canada. They are closely related to the Ojibwa. The name "Mississauga" comes from the Anishinaabe word Misi-zaagiing, meaning "[Those at the] Great River-mouth." According to the histories of the Anishinaabe, after departing the "Second Stopping Place" near Niagara Falls, the core Anishinaabe peoples migrated along the shores of Lake Erie to what is now southern Michigan. They became "lost" both physically and spiritually. The Mississaugas migrated along a northern route by the Credit River, to Georgian Bay. These were considered their historic traditional lands on the shores of Lake Superior and northern Lake Huron around the Mississagi River. The Mississaugas called for the core Anishinaabe to Midewiwin meaning 'return to the path of the good life'. The core Anishinaabe peoples formed the Council of Three Fires and migrated from their "Third Stopping Place" near the present city of Detroit to their "Fourth Stopping Place" on Manitoulin Island, along the eastern shores of Georgian Bay.  By the time the French explorers arrived in 1634, the Mississaugas were a distinct tribe of Anishinaabe peoples, living along the Mississagi River and on Manitoulin Island. On the 1675 Carte du Mississippi et des lacs Supérieur, Michigan et Huron, the Mississaugas were recorded as "Missisakingdachirinouek"[1] (Misi-zaaging dash ininweg: "Regular-speakers of the Great River-mouth"). They had moved from the Mississagi River area southward into the Kawartha lakes region. From this location, a smaller contingent moved southwest to an area along the Credit River, just west of modern-day Toronto. The French identified the peoples as Mississauga.  Alternate spellings of the name are Mississaga, Massassauga and Missisauga, plural forms of these three, and "Mississauga Indians". Before the Anishinaabe language replaced the Wyandot language in mid-17th century as the lingua franca of the Great Lakes region, the Mississaugas were also known by the name (exonym) which the Wendat called them.  When Conrad Weiser conducted a census in Logstown in 1748, he identified the people as Tisagechroamis, his attempt at conveying the sound of their exonym, name in Wendat. Other variants of the spelling were Tisagechroamis, Tisaghechroamis, Tisagechroan, Tisagechroanu, and Zisaugeghroanu. "The Tisagechroanu were the Mississagas from Lake Huron, a large tribe of French Indians, or under French influences. The name Tisagechroanue here is probably a misprint, for it is most often found Zisaugeghroanu."[2]  In the waning years of the American Revolution, starting in 1781, the British Crown purchased land from the Mississauga in a series of transactions that encompassed much of present-day southern Ontario. They wanted to make land grants to Loyalists who left property in the Thirteen Colonies to reward them for loyalty, and the Crown also wanted to develop this area of the country with farms and towns. In the 21st century, the Canadian government awarded the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation nearly $145 million in settlement of a land claim because of the Crown's underpayment in the 18th century.  Legacy[edit] The city of Mississauga is named after the Mississauga Western and Eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus) are named after them. Fort Mississauga is named after them. Today[edit] Historically, there were five First Nations that made up the Mississauga Nations. Today, the six Mississauga nations are the following (listed under their historical counterpart, if applicable):  Mississauga First Nation — Mississagi River 8 Reserve Mississaugas of Chibaouinani (historical) Alderville First Nation (formerly: Mississaugas of Alnwick) — Alderville First Nation Reserve, Sugar Island 37A Reserve Mississaugas of the Credit (historical) Mississaugas of Beldom (historical) Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation — New Credit 40A Reserve Mississaugas of Matchedash (historical) Mississaugas of Rice Lake, Mud Lake and Scugog Lake (historical) Curve Lake First Nation (formerly: Mississaugas of Mud Lake) — Curve Lake First Nation 35 Reserve, Curve Lake 35A Reserve and Islands in the Trent Waters Indian Reserve 36A Mississaugas of Grape Island (historical) Hiawatha First Nation (formerly: Mississaugas of Rice Lake) — Hiawatha First Nation Indian Reserve, Islands in the Trent Waters Indian Reserve 36A Mississaugas of Scugog Island First Nation — Mississaugas of Scugog Island Reserve, Islands in the Trent Waters Indian Reserve 36A One of the largest is the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nations. As of 2005, the Mississaugas of New Credit have a population of 1,375. All the Mississaugas are a small part of the Ojibwa nation of 200,000 people. Photo
755874477892655_775873762559393 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775873762559393 Good Morning Family:  The state of Neskantage Nations has touched the hearts of many of you. We are going to start this Challenge with Letters of Hope.  I ask each of you to please take the time to write a short letter of hope to a resident of this community. Give them a reason to hang on that help is on the way, that we hear them and care.  Email that letter to me brendaedwards@cruzinternet.com , I will then envelope each one and sent sent the whole package to the reserve. I want this start today and the package will be mailed out  Jan 04, 2016 . Please help me save a life with hope.  Thank you Status
755874477892655_775544015925701 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775544015925701 Indigenous People Matter shared Native American Cherokee's photo. Photo
755874477892655_775543692592400 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775543692592400 privileged to share from Medicine Bear Photo
755874477892655_775540482592721 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775540482592721 Important matter: Please Read and post your suggestions as to how we can help this community.  http://www.cbc.ca/news/aboriginal/neskantaga-first-nation-raises-alarm-as-suicides-continue-1.2627548 Link
755874477892655_775530985927004 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775530985927004 my gift to you  Love Brenda Good Night  https://youtu.be/dnxHsbmSWdU Link
755874477892655_775529062593863 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775529062593863 https://youtu.be/2jXVFEH2w3w Link
755874477892655_775527382594031 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775527382594031 Good Evening Family as requested by Shawn MacGuire here is tonight's history:  History of the Tlingits  Picture The Tlingit people, whose name means "People of the Tides", have a vast history; many speculate its origins dating as early as 11,000 years ago. Two major theories exist as to where the Tlingit people originate from, the largest being a coastal migration across the Bering Strait land mass from north Asia. Others, however, believe that the Tlingit people may have migrated from Polynesia by island-hopping. However, it is not disputed that the Tlingit settled along Southeast Alaska thousands of years ago. For these many years, they lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle, subsisting off of the abundant Alaskan wildlife in a fashion few still continue today. The Tlingit people shared relations with the neighboring Haida and Tsimshian tribes, as they do in the modern era. These peoples traversed the area with large canoes of red cedar, often averaging sixty feet in length. Trading their prized Chiklat robes, shells, and jewelry, they received well-crafted canoes and sturdy cedar trees from the Haida lands. However, times were not completely peaceful; the tribes fought and raided each other’s villages for riches and slaves.   This trade continued upon the first arrival of Russian explorers in 1741. Although Aleksey Chirikov sent several men to the area who never returned, the fleet settled on the land peacefully several years later. Soon, in their wishes for conquest, the Russian men aggressively took advantage of the land and rerouted trade routes. In 1802, Chief Katlia of Sitka successfully forced the post to defect. The Russians, however, soon reclaimed the land, much to the resistance of local Tlingit.  As the Americans attempted to purge their newly-purchased land in the mid 1800s, one half of the Tlingit population was eradicated by diseases such as smallpox. Mines and logging establishments were installed on their land, and many felt powerless under such dominating capitalistic forces.   In 1912, hope was given to the Tlingit peoples as the Alaska Native Brotherhood was founded. This program was established with the goal of promoting equality for Alaskan natives. Their efforts led to the passing of a bill in which natives could become territorial citizens, albeit if they shed some of their “uncivilized” ways. However, their political power grew in 1924, when in the first year of eligibility for national citizenship, a Tlingit man became a member of the Territorial House of Representatives. This event hallmarked a longstanding history of Tlingit presence in politics.   With the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANSCA), the Tlingit people were eligible for reclamation of their former land. The Sealaska Corporation sought and purchased the property, however, although the Tlingit still had the opportunity of a lawsuit. To this day, Tlingit natives are still receiving financial compensation for their lost land.   As Americans and Christian missionaries forced their culture upon the Tlingit people, many attempted to fight inequality and prejudice. In 1945, Tlingit member Elizabeth Peratrovitch pled for the passage of an anti-discrimination bill, which eventually was made into law. The State of Alaska then recognized February eighth as an annual celebration day in her honor.   Nowadays, ANSCA corporations have substantial lobbying power in the area, representing 16,000 Tlingit and Haida people. A large population have jobs in the logging, forestry, fishing, and tourism industries, while their support of higher education has led to many with occupations such as healthcare workers, lawyers, and educators. Most of these people have relocated to more populous areas of southeast Alaska for more abundant employment opportunities. Sealaska and other ANSCA corporations provide corporate and managerial positions to some Tlingit people. In 1978, tribal courts were introduced in the Sitka area to resolve civil disputes between various peoples and clans.   Most Tlingit people tend to vote for the Democratic party, and most assume political office under that group as well. Significant amounts of people have also served in wars, with substantial support from the community.   While many Tlingit have adapted to a modernized lifestyle, some are still attempting to subsist off of the Alaskan land, despite growing fishing and logging industries nearby. Unfortunately, this had made many of these people reliant on welfare as a partial contribution to income. This has also introduced several health issues to the area, with native Tlingit having high susceptibility to influenza, arthritis, hepatitis, cancer, and diabetes. Alcoholism, however, is  the most prevalent disease among Tlingit natives. However, suicide rates are consistently lower compared to other tribes nationally, and members of the community are initiating support and rehabilitation groups for those afflicted with major health issues. The hopes to retain the Tlingit culture are evidently shared throughout the community.   Sources: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Sr-Z/Tlingit.html#b ; http://sheldonmuseum.org/tlingithistory.htm Link
755874477892655_775378889275547 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775378889275547 https://youtu.be/7DTTCYupRTw Link
755874477892655_775378765942226 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775378765942226 https://youtu.be/_eqpcpvzFrQ Link
755874477892655_775377719275664 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775377719275664 Good Morning My Family, I am on the ball already with today's first history piece. I Love watching all comment on my articles as you discover your family roots. Anyway here it is:  Abnaki. (Wâbuna'ki, from wâbun, a term associated with 'light,' 'white,' and refers to the morning and the east; a'ki 'earth,' 'land'; hence Wâbuna'ki is an inanimate singular term signifying 'eastland,' or 'morning-land,' the elements referring to animate dwellers of the east being wanting.- Jones). A name used by the English and French of the colonial period to designate an Algonquian confederacy centreing in the present state of Maine , and by the Algonquian tribes to include all those of their own stock resident on the Atlantic seaboard, more particularly the "Abnaki" in the N. and the Delawares in the S. More recently it has been applied also to the emigrant Oneida , Stockbridges, and Munsee about Green bay , Wis. By the Puritans they were generally called Tarrateens, a term apparently obtained from the southern New England tribes; and though that is the general conclusion of modern authorities, there is some doubt as to the aboriginal origin of this term. In later times, after the main body of the Abnaki had removed to Canada , the name was applied more especially to the Penobscot tribe. The Iroquois called them Owenunga, which seems to be merely a modification of Abnaki, or Abnaqui, the name applied by the French and used by most modern writers. The form Openango has been used more especially to designate the eastern tribes. Maurault ( Hist. des Aben. , 2, 1888) says: "Some English authors have called these savages Wabanoaks, 'those of the east'; this is the reason they are called 'Abenakis' by some among us. This name was given them because they were toward the east with reference to the Narragansetts."   Ethnic relations . - In his tentative arrangement Brinton ( Len. Leg ., 11, 1885) brings into one group the Nascapee, Micmac, Malecite, Etchimin, and Abnaki, but this is more of a geographic than a linguistic grouping. Vetromile ( Abnakis , 20, 1888), following other authors, says that we should "embrace under this term all the tribes of the Algic [Algonquian] family, who occupy or have occupied the E. or N. E. shore of North America; thus, all the Indians of the seashores, from Virginia to Nova Scotia, were Abnaki." Maurault gives the following as the principal tribes of the Abnaki confederacy: Kanibesinnoaks (Norridgewock in part; Patsuikets (Sokoki in part); Sokouakiaks (Sokoki); Nurhantsuaks (Norridgewock); Pentagoets (Penobscot); Etemankiake (Etchimin) Ouarastegouiaks (Malecite), the name Abnaki being applied in the restricted sense to the Indians of Kennebec r. All these tribes spoke substantially the same language, the chief dialectal differences being between the Etchimin and the other tribes of the group. The Etchimin, who formed a subgroup of the Abnaki confederacy, included the Passamaquoddy and Malecite. Linguistically the Abnaki do not appear to be more closely related to the Micmac than to the Delaware group, and Dr. William Jones finds the Abnaki closely related to the central Algonquian languages. In customs and beliefs they are more nearly related to the Micmac, and their ethnic relations appear to be with the tribes N. of the St. Lawrence.   History . - The history of the Abnaki may be said to begin with Verrazano's visit in 1524. The mythical accounts of Norumbega of the early writers and navigators finally dwindled to a village of a few bark-covered huts under the name Agguncia, situated near the mouth of Penobscot r., in the country of the Abnaki. In 1604, Champlain ascended the Penobscot to the vicinity of the present Bangor , and met the "lord" of Norumbega, doubtless an Abnaki chief. From that time the Abnaki formed an important factor in the history of the region now embraced in the state of Maine . From the time of their discovery until their partial withdrawal to Canada they occupied the general region from the St. John to the Saco; but the earliest English accounts indicate that about 1605-20 the S. W. part of the coast of Maine was occupied by other Indians, whose chief seat was near Pemaquid, and who were at war with the Abnaki, or Tarrateen, as the English termed them, who were more to the N.; but these other tribes were finally conquered by the Abnaki and probably absorbed by them. Who these Indians were is unknown. The Abnaki formed an early attachment for the French, chiefly through the influence of their missionaries, and carried on an almost constant war with the English until the fall of the French power in America . The accounts of these struggles during the settlement of Maine are familiar episodes in American history. As the whites encroached on them the Abnaki gradually withdrew to Canada and settled chiefly at Bécancour and Sillery, the latter being afterward abandoned by them for St. Francis, near Pierreville , Quebec . The Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, and Malecite, however, remained in their ancient homes, and, in 1749, the Penobscot, as the leading tribe, made peace with the English, accepting fixed bounds. Since that period the different tribes have gradually dwindled into insignificance. The descendants of those who emigrated from Maine together with remnants of other New England tribes, are now at St. Francis and Bécancour in Quebec , where, under the name of Abnaki, they numbered 340 in 1911. In 1903 the Malecite, or Amalicite, were numbered at 801 in several villages in New Brunswick and Quebec , with about 625 Penobscot and Passamaquoddy in Maine . The present Penobscot say they number between 300 and 400, while the Passamaquoddy claim as many as 800 souls.   Customs and beliefs . - According to the writers on early Maine , the Abnaki were more gentle in manners and more docile than their western congeners. Yet they were implacable enemies and, as Maurault states, watched for opportunities of revenge, as did other Indians. Notwithstanding Vetromile's statement to the contrary, if Maurault's assertion ( Hist. Abenakis , 25, 1866) applies to this tribe, as seems evident, they, like most other tribes, were guilty of torturing their prisoners, except in the case of females, who were kindly treated. Although relying for subsistence to a large extent on hunting, and still more on fishing, maize was an important article of diet, especially in winter. Sagard states that in his day they cultivated the soil in the manner of the Huron. They used the rejected and superfluous fish to fertilize their fields, one or two fish being placed near the roots of the plant. Their houses or wigwams were conical in form and covered with birch-bark or with woven mats, and several families occupied a single dwelling. Their villages were, in some cases at least, inclosed with palisades. Each village had its council house of considerable size, oblong in form and roofed with bark; and similar structures were used by the males of the village who preferred to club together in social fellowship. Polygamy was practised but little, and the marriage ceremony was of the simplest character; presents were offered, and on their acceptance marriage was consummated. Each tribe had a war chief, and also a civil chief whose duty it was to preserve order, though this was accomplished through advice rather than by command. They had two councils, the grand and the general. The former, consisting of the chiefs and two men from each family, determined matters that were of great importance to the tribe, and pronounced sentence of death on those deserving that punishment. The general council, composed of all the tribe, including males and females, decided questions relating to war. The Abnaki believed in the immortality of the soul. Their chief deities were Kechi Niwaskw and Machi Niwaskw, representing, respectively, the good and the evil; the former, they believed, resided on an island in the Atlantic ; Machi Niwaskw was the more powerful. According to Maurault they believed that the first man and woman were created out of a stone, but that Kechi Niwaskw, not being satisfied with these, destroyed them and created two more out of wood, from whom the Indians are descended. They buried their dead in graves excavated in the soil.   Tribal divisions . -The tribes included in the confederacy as noted by Maurault have already been given. In a letter sent by the Abnaki in 1721, to the governor of New England their divisions are given as follows: Narantsouuk (Norridgewock), Pentugouet (Penobscot), Narakamigou (Rocameca), Amnissoukanti (Amaseconti), Muanbissek, Pegouakki (Pequawket, N. H.), Medoktek (Medoctec), Kwupahag, Pesmokanti (Passamaquoddy), Arsikantegou (Arosaguntacook), Ouanwinak (Wewenoc, s. edge of N. H.). The following is a full list of Abnaki tribes: Accominta, Amaseconti, Arosaguntacook, Etchimin, Malecite, Missiassik, Norridgewock (the Abnaki in the most limited sense), Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, Pequawket Rocameca, Sokoki, and Wewenoc. The bands residing on St. Croix and St. John rs. spoke a different dialect from those to the southward, and were known collectively as Etchimin. They are now known as Passamaquoddy and Malecite. Although really a part of the Abnaki, they were frequently classed as a distinct body, while on the other hand the Pennacook tribes, although distinct from the Abnaki, were often classed with them on account of their connection during the Indian wars and after their removal to Canada. According to Morgan they had fourteen gentes: 1, Mals'-sum, Wolf; 2, Pi"uh', Black Wildcat; 3, Ah-weh'-soos, Bear; 4, Skooke, Snake; 5, Ah-lunk-soo, Spotted Animal; 6, Ta-mäk-wa, Beaver; 7, Maguh-le-loo', Caribou; 8, Kä-bäh'-seh, Sturgeon; 9, Moos-kwk-", Muskrat; 10, K'-che-gh-gong'-go, Pigeon Hawk; 11, Meh-ko-ä, Squirrel; 12, Che-gwä'-lis, Spotted Frog; 13, Koos-koo', Crane; 14, March'-weh-soos, Porcupine. According to Chauvignerie their principal totems were the pigeon and the bear, while they also had the partridge, beaver, and otter totems.   The Abnaki villages, so far as their names have been recorded, were Amaseconti, Ammoncongan, Aquadocta (?), Arosaguntacook, Asnela, Aucocisco, Bagaduce, Bécancou, Calais (Passamaquoddy) Gunasquamekook (Passamaquoddy), Imnarkuan (Passamaquoddy), Kennebec, Ketangheanycke, Lincoln Island, Masherosqueck, Mattawamkeag (Penobscot), Mattinacook (Penobscot), Mecadacut, Medoctec (Malecite), Meecombe, Missiassik (Missiassik), Moratiggon (?), Moshoquen, Muanbissek (?), Muscongus, Negas, Negusset (?), Norridgewock, Norumbega, Okpaak, (Malecite) Olamon (Penobscot), Old Town (Penobscot), Ossaghrage, Ouwerage, Pasharanack, Passadumkeag (Penobscot), Passamaquoddy (village?), Pauhuntanuc, Pemaquid, Penobscot, Pequawket, Pocopassum, Precaute, Rocameca, Sabine, Sagadahoc, Sainte Anne (Malecite), St Francis, Satquin, Sebaik (Passamaquoddy), Segocket, Segotago, Sillery, Sokoki (village?), Taconnet, Tobique (Malecite), Unyjaware, Viger (Malecite), Wabigganus, Waccogo, Wewenoc (village?). Photo
755874477892655_775179559295480 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775179559295480 The Third Connection to Oak Island: http://www.ancient-origins.net/human-origins-folklore/mysterious-aboriginal-rock-art-wandjinas-extraterrestrial-or-not-00701 Link
755874477892655_775178925962210 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775178925962210 Oak Island Second Connection:  http://nationtalk.ca/story/cree-code-breaker-and-the-oak-island-mystery Link
755874477892655_775178705962232 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775178705962232 Oak Island first connection.  http://forgottenorigin.com/mikmaq-ancient-egyptian-connection-in-kariong-nova-scotia-and-illinois-by-jack-macnab/comment-page-1 Link
755874477892655_775176915962411 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775176915962411 To my family : As my journey takes me closer to the creator, my needs grow less and less. The biggest need of someone whom is lost is :  af·firm·a·tion ˌafərˈmāSH(ə)n/ noun 1. the action or process of affirming something or being affirmed. "he nodded in affirmation" synonyms: declaration, statement, assertion, proclamation, pronouncement, attestation; More 2. emotional support or encouragement. "the lack of one or both parents' affirmation leaves some children emotionally crippled"  I no longer need affirmation of who I am, I no longer need the acceptance of all people, I just need the one thing.  To openly communicate with the Creator. Try it sometime ,  As my spiritual connections grow, I drive deeper into the our First Nations past , present, and futures.  I may have no Indian name,or tribe, but I am Brenda a  Metis , to tell the the Metis story I must tell all First Nations stories. Love and blessings Brenda Status
755874477892655_775175315962571 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775175315962571 PRIVILEGED TO SHARE Photo
755874477892655_775161632630606 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775161632630606 Stay tuned for aboriginal connections to Oak Island. Status
755874477892655_775147672632002 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775147672632002 https://youtu.be/Rx9wkRcj-vo Link
755874477892655_775147182632051 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775147182632051 Montagnais Indians - Innu Indians   Montagnais, a group of closely related Algonkian tribes in Quebec, extending from the St. Lawrence river to the watershed of Hudson bay and from the St. Maurice river to Seven Islands on the Côte du Nord. Their name is French for "mountaineers", and has reference to the mountainous character of the country which they have occupied since the coming of the white man. The tribes of the group speak several well-defined dialects, but these are closely related to that of the Naskapi, and more remotely to the Cree of the Athabaska district in the Canadian North West. Though one of the earliest of the Indian groups to come into contact with the white man, they remain among the most primitive of all the Indian tribes. They are still essentially nomadic, do not practice agriculture, and live by hunting and fishing. Christian missionaries have been active among them since 1615 ; but the missionaries have not succeeded in persuading them greatly to change their mode of life. They customarily spend the winter months in the interior, hunting the moose and various fur-bearing animals; and they come down to the St. Lawrence only in the summer, partly to trade, and partly to fish and hunt seals. They have never had any true tribal organization, but have always been broken up into small bands interrelated by marriage, but politically distinct, and in possession of separate hunting grounds. Their chiefs exercise little authority; and in warfare they have generally lacked leadership. Though they formerly waged war against the Iroquois and the Micmac, they have been on the whole a timid people, and not warlike; yet they have succeeded in retaining control of their territory from the dawn of historic times. Various factors, however, have brought about a sharp decline in their numbers. In early days, the Iroquois wrought havoc among them, and decimated or exterminated a number of bands; later, the exhaustion of the animal life in their territory made the struggle for existence more severe and starvation not unknown; more recently, the diseases of the white man, such as measles and tuberculosis, have taken their toll. At one time they were able to muster 1,000 warriors at the mouth of the Saguenay alone; but now their total numbers are scarcely greater than this, and the majority of them are half-breeds. See D. Jenness, The Indians of Canada (Ottawa, 1932). Photo
755874477892655_775123352634434 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775123352634434 https://youtu.be/-Z9PhUI5oUE Link
755874477892655_775122615967841 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775122615967841 I wrote this myself in Sept 2015 before a Began my Spiritual Journey . Tonight I share it with you.  The Great River’s Flow  We all are part of of the Great River’s flow, born into waters quiet and calm, and as we grow  We add to that Great River’s Flow.  As teen agers and young adults, there are torrents of rains in our life, destroying everything in our flow. At this age we over run the banks, taking down the beauty to all around us, because we do not understanding the Great Rivers Flow.  As we age we enjoy some rain , and wind stir up our quiet bottom flow, but we begin to understand we are part of the Great River’s Flow and what to help it flow easily by helping others in it’s flow. As we reach our older years we wait for the Great River to bring us to still pond, where we can watch nature take its toll. I pray for that day, to hear the birds, feel the wind, see the sun, that the end of the Great Rivers Flow.  By Brenda Edwards Status
755874477892655_775088175971285 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775088175971285 Privileged to share Photo
755874477892655_775051505974952 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775051505974952 https://www.facebook.com/NativeAmericanForPresident/videos/201652193510944/ SharedVideo
755874477892655_775050725975030 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775050725975030 I am so privileged to share this Photo
755874477892655_775050225975080 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775050225975080 https://www.facebook.com/MedicineBearLasVegas/posts/205101706496442 Photo
755874477892655_775046815975421 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775046815975421 http://lm.facebook.com/l.php?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3DSC9syForxPs%26sns%3Dfb&h=8AQHSQHQd&enc=AZPhjozl_-szpiylJE0HC1fETKDjEvhvvHKfuBXHfwKAwTvsoTL2udiZV3MSqpQk8X4&s=1 Link
755874477892655_775045362642233 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/775045362642233 https://www.facebook.com/brenda.edwards1/posts/10153810109443866 Link
755874477892655_774754926004610 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774754926004610 Indigenous People Matter shared Medicine Bear's photo. Photo
755874477892655_774751689338267 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774751689338267 Treat the earth well.  We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children.  - Native American Proverb  Last night words to my family : My wish for today, tomorrow, and everyday is to live as the Creator wanted me too. To lead by good example, to Love with my whole heart, to learn beyond the capacity of my limits. And to share it all with you.  Love Brenda Status
755874477892655_774747722671997 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774747722671997 https://youtu.be/AbxCtmteQ-U Link
755874477892655_774745826005520 http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=ms.c.eJwzNzcxNzGzNLI0NrYwNzHWMwfxzQ0NwHwjUyjfxBDEN7M0AQDqEAm9.bps.a.774745826005520.1073741836.755874477892655&type=1 Great Elders Photo
755874477892655_774745242672245 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774745242672245 Aboriginal Elder: Definition In this article we provide the definition of Aboriginal Elder and answer some specific questions people ask us in our Working Effectively with Aboriginal Peoples® workshops. Questions such as: what makes someone an Elder, is being an Elder age specific, how should you address Aboriginal Elders and more.  We have put the questions in italics and then follow-up with the answer.  What makes an Elder?  The big challenge in answering this question is that not all communities are the same and it really depends on the culture or community to define what makes an Elder.  One common trait amongst Aboriginal Elders is a deep spirituality that influences every aspect of their lives and teachings. They strive to show by example - by living their lives according to deeply ingrained principles, values and teachings.  Do you have to be a certain age to be an elder? Being an Elder is not defined by age, but rather Elders are recognized because they have earned the respect of their community through wisdom, harmony and balance of their actions in their teachings. In First Nation Elder vs Senior we take a closer look at the importance of effective communication.  Can both men and women be elders? Being an Elder is not gender specific as in my own experience I know both male and female Elders.  Is the role of an Elder the same everywhere you go across the country? While the exact role of Elders may change from community to community, there are common principles that Elders try to instil in their community members such as respect for the natural world and that the earth is their mother. Aboriginal Elders are deeply committed to share their knowledge, provide guidance, teach others to respect the natural world, to learn to listen and feel the rhythms of the elements and seasons.  Has the role of Elders changed over time? In some communities, when families move apart, Elders will travel to visit the family members in order to keep in touch and to prevent them from forgetting their connections. In some jurisdictions, Elders have a real presence in the schools. Some Elders have also formed organizations, with regular meetings and websites such as the BC Elders Communications Society.  What are the duties of elders?  In my experience, the duties of an Elder today can include: conducting smudges, sweats, prayers, opening prayers, counseling, sweetgrass ceremonies and negotiations to name but a few.  When an Elder is invited to conduct an opening prayer or smudge, what is the customary honorarium and how does one find that out? Honorarium amounts vary but Elders do get compensated for travel and time. You have to determine which Nation’s traditional lands you are in, and then contact the office of that Nation and ask if they can suggest an Elder and the amount of the customary honorarium. Please read First Nation Elder Protocol for more complete information.  Are other gifts welcome or expected? There are four sacred plants: tobacco, sweet grass, sage and cedar. A gift of one of the four sacred plants is seen as recognition of the wisdom an Elder can share. In Inuit culture, tobacco is not used ceremonially.  Working Effectively with Aboriginal Peoples® tips:  How should we address elders? Should we use just their names or add Elder to the front as in “Elder Alice will now conduct the opening prayer”? Be prepared to adjust your volume of speech; Be wary of too much eye contact; Be sure to address them as Elder Alice instead of Alice to show high respect; Be sure to ask for consent before photographing or video recording a ceremonial event. Status
755874477892655_774744756005627 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774744756005627 The Importance of Aboriginal Elders W i t h i n t h e N a t i v e A m e r i c a n c o m m u n i t y t h e r e i s a n a b i d i n g t r a d i t i o n o f r e s p e c t fo r t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f fa m i l y a n d t h e h o n o r i n g o f e l d e r s . I n To B u i l d a B r i dg e : Wo rk i ng w i t h A m e r i c a n In d i a n C o m m u n i t i e s , a u t h o r s J o h n P o u p a r t a n d J o h n R e d H o r s e a ffi r m t h a t “ c u l t u r a l v a l u e s h av e b e e n t h e s o u r c e o f s t r e n g t h fo r I n d i a n p e o p l e fo r m a ny c e n t u r i e s . To d ay, ” t h e y s ay, “ t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n v a l u e s a r e b e i n g ‘ r e - d i s c o v e r e d ’ a n d i m p l e m e n t e d i n r e s t o r a t i v e j u s t i c e , l e a d e r s h i p , a l t e r n a t i v e d i s p u t e r e s o l u t i o n , a n d c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p - m e n t p r o g r a m s . ” 1 D u r i n g t h e t i m e w e s p e n t t r av e l i n g t h r o u g h S o u t h D a k o t a , m e e t i n g w i t h o u r A m e r i c a n I n d i a n s i s t e r s a n d b r o t h e r s o f a l l a g e s , w e b e g a n t o s e e t h i s “ r e - d i s c o v e r y ” o f t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n c u l t u r e , a n d w e w a n t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d m o r e a b o u t t h e w ay s t h e p e o p l e t h e r e w e r e r e d i s c o v e r i n g t h e g i ft s o f e l d e r s a n d fa m i l i e s . “Do no t speak harshly to an o lder man, but speak to him as to afather, to yo ung er men as bro thers, to o lder wo men as mo thers, to yo ung er wo men as sisters — with abso lutepurity. ” — 1 Timo thy 5: 1 – 2 A l o n g o u r j o u r n ey, w e h a d t h e h o n o r o f s p e n d i n g t i m e w i t h S i m o n L o o k i n g E l k . A l o c a l p a s t o r , S i m o n g r e w u p o n t h e P i n e R i d g e R e s e r - v a t i o n a n d a t M a k a s a n P r e s b y t e r i a n C h u r c h . I n r e fl e c t i n g o n t h e i mp o r - t a n c e o f e l d e r s i n I n d i a n c u l t u r e , S i m o n r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e i s n o t m u c h my s t e r y i nv o l v e d i n w h a t q u a l i fi e s o n e a s a n e l d e r . A n e l d e r i s s i mp ly a m a n o r wo m a n , u s u a l ly o l d e r t h a n t h e o t h e r s i n t h e fa m i ly a n d c o m - m u n i ty, w h o , w h i l e n o t e l e c t e d o r a p p o i n t e d , i s w i d e ly r e c o g n i z e d a n d h i g h ly r e s p e c t e d fo r t h e i r w i s d o m a n d s p i r i t u a l l e a d e r s h i p . S i m o n t o l d u s t h a t e l d e r s o ft e n a r e k n o w n fo r b e i n g t h e k i n d o f p e o - p l e w h o h av e p a i d a t t e n t i o n , g a i n i n g k n o w l e d g e a n d w i s d o m fro m l i fe — d u r i n g t h e i r c h i l d h o o d t h ey w a t c h e d a n d l i s t e n e d c a r e fu l ly t o c e r - e m o n i e s a n d t r a d i t i o n s , a n d a s yo u t h , t h ey p a i d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e w ay s t h e e l d e r s i n t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s b e h av e d . F o r i t i s b y t h e w ay t h ey l iv e t h a t e l d e r s t e a c h yo u n g e r t r i b e m e mb e r s a b o u t t h e t r i b e ’ s c u l t u r e a n d t r a d i t i o n a l w ay s o f l i fe , a n d i t i s t h ro u g h t h e o r a l t r a d i t i o n s s h a r e d b y e l d e r s t h a t s o c i a l v a l u e s a n d b e l i e fs a r e p r e s e r v e d . E s s e n t i a l ly, e l d e r s a r e l i b r a r i e s o f I n d i a n k n o w l e d g e , h i s t o r y a n d t r a d i t i o n . T h e w ay s o f t h e p a s t a r e s t i l l o f v i t a l i mp o r t a n c e t o t h e l i fe s ty l e s o f t h e p r e s e n t . S i m o n t o l d u s t h a t i n L a k o t a e n c a mp m e n t s o f t h e 1 8 0 0 s , The Impo rtance of Elders and Family in Native A merican Culture B Y PAT R I C I A C L A R K A N D N O R M A S H E R M A N Collage by Mark Cable/Debbie Paris March/April 2011 15 there was one large tipi where the elders met to make decisions regarding the village—decisions about where the tribe would be moving, when and where to hunt, the planting of crops, the security of the village, and more.Today, elders still meet to make decisions through discussion and consensus.At a presbytery gathering,a meeting of the elders might be called to make recommendations on issues before the governing body. “These stories were the libraries of ourpeople. In each story, there was recorded some event of interest or importance . . . A people enrich their minds whokeep their history on the leaves of memory.” 2 —Luther StandingBear, Lakota During our time in South Dakota, we met with women who explained the importance of elders further. Elona Street-Stewart,associate for racial ethnic ministries and community for the Synod of Lakes and Prairies, PC(USA), told us that tribal council members, youth and community leaders go to the elders before planning takes place for public events and ceremonies.The elders explain how and why the particulars of a ceremony are performed. Elders are always present as part of public meetings, task force sessions and council meetings.They might not say anything, but their presence is always requested. Elona says that elders are held in high regard for their wisdom—they are valued for being the bridge between the past and the present. MadelineTerry, great-great granddaughter of the beloved Lakota chief Big Foot and a member of the Makasan Presbyterian Church, said she could remember from a very young age that it was always important to listen. “When one of the elders spoke, you listened—it didn’t matter if the person was directly related to you or not.You listened.” “Iknow how my father saw the world,and his father before him. That’s how I see the world.” 3 —N. Scott Momaday, Kiowa/Cherokee Madeline shared with us several memories of the involvement of elders in the life of the community. She said that at one time there was a group called the Gray Eagles.This group of elderly adults worked in the community regularly.The Gray Eagles would go to schools, Head Start programs and community meetings to share American Indian wisdom through storytelling.They would tell the stories of history and of prior decisions that they knew would affect every part of American Indian life.They knew what to share in order to help the present generation learn from the wisdom of the past. As USA Mission Experience participants, one of our most memorable experiences was our interaction with Sidney Byrd, who shared quite a bit about the wisdom of the past. Sidney ministers at First Presbyterian Church of Flandreau, South Dakota.At 92 years old, Sidney is a descendent of theWeston family, who were some of the first missionaries in the area. Sidney grew up in Pine Ridge and was a part of the Porcupine Church community. He told us that a person earns the Left: Simon Looking Elk pauses for a moment of reflection and prayer at the memorial to the Lakota men, women and children who were killed at Wounded Knee. Center: Madeline Terry, the great-great granddaughter of Lakota chief Big Foot who was killed at Wounded Knee, offered her thoughts on respecting the wisdom of elders. Right: Alice Wyatt, PW vice moderator for mission relationships, thanks Sidney Byrd, pastor of First Presbyterian Church in Flandreau, South Dakota, for sharing his stories with the USA Mission Experience group. Beverly Lane Joy Temple Ray Courtesy of Alice Wyatt 16 title of elder because that person has lived long enough to have wisdom about a matter; thus, someone who needs direction will come to an elder for advice.This does not necessarily mean the elder is of a certain age;rather, what the elder knows at a particular time or for a particular situation is what is important. Elona confirmed this notion, saying that no one declares that he or she has reached eldership.It is not a matter of self-nomination but a term of respect bestowed upon the person by others in the community. “We have lived upon this land from days beyond history’s records, farpast any living memory, deepinto the time of legend. The story of mypeopleand the story of thisplaceare one single story. Wearealways joined together.” 4 —Pueblo elder As we learned about the importance of elders from our wise new friends, they also helped us understand their unique perspective on family. Simon told us that the American Indian view of family goes far beyond the nuclear family, extending to grandparents, uncles,aunts and cousins. In this larger family unit,members work and share together.American Indian tradition teaches that it is essential for families to share resources in order that all may survive.This concept of sharing all resources leads to another important standard:a person is not respected for what he or she has, but for what he or she gives away. Simon also told us about one of the most important family traditions in the Lakota culture—the sacred Hunka ceremony.The Hunka ceremony could very well be called the “making relatives” ceremony. During this ceremony,an Indian receives her or his Indian name,and one person will tie an eagle feather or plume in the hair of another person—younger to older or older to younger.This process establishes a special relationship between the two and,after the ceremony, it is as if a new relative has been adopted.The two people are now connected in a deep way. Elona expanded on this a bit for us, telling us that the family is essentially one large community—all of one’s maternal aunts can be considered one’s mothers by extension, and all of one’s paternal uncles can be considered one’s fathers by extension.In American Indian culture, it is standard for families to be that close to one another. We asked Sidney Byrd who was important to him while he was growing up.He replied, “In the old days, there would be a storyteller— an elder—who would go house to house and tell the story of the Indian people from the beginning. These stories would be told around the fire in the evening and it is because of the retelling of these stories that I was able to write about the history of our people and the church in this area.Almost all of it came from storytellers.By passing on their stories,I honor the memory of Wischincamaza (Iron Old Man), the man who was the lapi oaye (‘word carrier’) in our community. His words were published at the Santee NormalTraining School in June 1871 and I translated them from Dakota into English in 2002.” What Sidney revealed to us in that final story was the connection between families and elders, the enduring importance of both in American Indian culture. During the USA Mission Experience we received the gift of listening to older voices and younger voices. Progressive policies and projects are being developed and implemented through the Oglala–Sioux tribal offices on the Pine Ridge Reservation. As we listened to the plans of a group of strong, young Native women, we recognized that,as they push their people forward, they do so through discussing and honoring the words and wisdom of those in their tribe who have gone before. “Let the spirits helpyou,and they will helpyou . . . . They’ll give you the understandingand wisdom of your people.” 5 —AbeConklin,Ponca/Osage Patricia Clark participated as representative from Synod of the MidAtlantic, and Norma Sherman participated as representative from Synod of the Pacific, in the PW USA Mission Experience to South Dakota, September 2010. Notes 1. John Poupart and John Red Horse, To Build a Bridge:Working with American Indian Communities (St. Paul, MN:American Indian Policy Center, 2010), 25. 2. Editors of Reader’s Digest, Through Indian Eyes: The Untold Story of Native American Peoples (Pleasantville, NewY Status
755874477892655_774726486007454 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774726486007454 https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=cp_hO9EcTGE&feature=youtu.be Link
755874477892655_774726196007483 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774726196007483 Indigenous People Matter shared Sundar Jo's photo. Photo
755874477892655_774726026007500 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774726026007500 Indigenous People Matter shared Native American Chiefs's photo. Photo
755874477892655_774725902674179 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774725902674179 Indigenous People Matter shared Native American History's photo. Photo
755874477892655_774725542674215 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774725542674215 Thank you Photo
755874477892655_774725412674228 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774725412674228 Indigenous People Matter shared Native American Indian's photo. Photo
755874477892655_774506196029483 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774506196029483 Love it Photo
755874477892655_774505522696217 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774505522696217 Indigenous People Matter shared Native Spirits Tribal Community.com's photo. Photo
755874477892655_774399942706775 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774400156040087 Indigenous People Matter's cover photo Photo
755874477892655_774389816041121 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774390029374433:0 Christmas day with My best friend and my grandson.  The Creator rewarded me this day with a successful meal , family and friends all under one roof. Thank you Photo
755874477892655_774377869375649 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774377869375649 The Shoshoni were the first of the northern tribes to obtain horses from the Spaniards who brought horses into the area which is now the American Southwest in the 16th century. By the early 18th century, many Spanish settlers lived throughout the region, as far north as southern Colorado. Although people had traveled widely for the purpose of trade for thousands of years, the horse made long distance travel much easier. Horses gave the Shoshoni a distinct advantage over neighboring tribes. They expanded their territory far to the north, even into what is now Canada, pushing back their enemies, the Blackfeet. The tables were turned when the Blackfeet acquired guns from Canadian traders and drove the Shoshoni back to the area where Lewis & Clark found them in 1805.  The Blackfeet and other enemy tribes raided Shoshoni camps for horses, yet allied tribes "visited them for the purpose of swapping and bartering for their cayuses Status
755874477892655_774359009377535 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774359009377535 The Journey  When the earth is sick and dying, There will come a tribe of people From all races… Who will put their faith in deeds, Not words, and make the planet Green again…  - Cree Prophecy  Love you all Brenda Status
755874477892655_774351159378320 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774351159378320 https://youtu.be/ORpY67iD_Io Link
755874477892655_774350386045064 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774350386045064 Today's Tribal History: Tobacco Nation  Tobacco Nation or Tionontati, Native North Americans of the Iroquoian branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). In 1616, when visited by the French, they were living S of Nottawasaga Bay, in Ontario. The French called them the Tobacco Nation for their large fields of the crop. After the dispersion (1648–49) of the Huron by the Iroquois Confederacy, many Huron refugees fled to the Tobacco Nation, and later in 1649 the wrathful Iroquois attacked. The remnants of the Tobacco Nation, with the Huron, were forced to flee to a region SW of Lake Superior. About 1670 the two tribes were at Mackinac; soon after they assimilated into one tribe, known to history as the Wyandot (see under Huron). In 1990 there were some 2,500 Wyandot in the United States. More on Tobacco Nation from Infoplease: Huron, indigenous people of North America - Huron Huron , confederation of four Native North American groups who spoke the Wyandot language, ... American Indian Tribes - Information about various nations and groups of American Indians Tionontati - Tionontati: Tionontati: see Tobacco Nation. November 13, 1804 - The Journals of Lewis and Clarkby Meriwether Lewis and William Clark November 12, 1804 November 14, ... Encyclopedia: North American indigenous peoples - Encyclopeadia articles concerning North American indigenous peoples. See more Encyclopedia articles on: North American indigenous peoples Photo
755874477892655_774345542712215 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/774345542712215 Hello my family, How was your Christmas Day. ? I was totally amazed with my spiritual connection to world yesterday, as friends and family came in our home. I was so in tune with negative energy some people give off, and positive energy others filled me with. Very interested step in growing connection to aboriginal roots. Status
755874477892655_773008116179291 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/773008116179291 https://youtu.be/m_3IXUSovK4 Link
755874477892655_773007586179344 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/773007586179344 Answer to Elizabeth Schnare: The Mingo [Sometimes found as the Ohio Seneca Indians] and Their Chief Logan The Mingos are often found referenced as sent to live among the Delaware to ensure that the Delaware behaved according to Iroquois mandate, and mention of the  Mingo is generally found describing a people associated with Ohio to which the Delaware eventually migrated. Mingos are generally found described as a mixed tribe people. "The name [Mingo]  comes from 'Minqua,'  a Delaware word meaning treacherous used for the Susquehannock and other Iroquian-speaking tribes. The Mingo were groups of independent Iroquois - mixed Seneca and Cayuga hunters with a heavy percentage of descendents of Neutrals, Huron, and Erie who had been adopted by the Iroquois during the 1650s. They settled in Ohio and western Pennsylvania in the early 1700s and formed mixed villages with the Delaware and Shawnee who [displaced by expansion in Pennsylvania's East]  arrived later."16 "George Washington's 1753-54 map of Ohio Country shows Mingo Town about 20 miles below present Pittsburgh, about two miles below Logs Town. An anonymous map of the Ohio drawn about 1755 shows the notation at the same location that 'Senecas moved from here last summer'. These two sources will show that the Mingoes were also considered as Senecas. Brown, Lloyd Arnold, EARLY MAPS OF THE OHIO VALLEY, Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1959"  22 The Seneca were one of the original five tribes of the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy of Upstate New York.      Click for Image Details Useful Links: The Use of the Mingo Language in the Last Half of the Twentieth  Century   by Thomas McElwain Mingo Indians [a composite of historical accounts where the name is used]  Soyechtowa's  [AKA Chief Shikellamy of the Iroquois Confederacy ]  oldest son was born ca 1725 probably near Lake Cayuga in upstate  New York. Shikellamy, an able diplomat sent by the Onandaga Council during the crucial phase of increased volatility in the Susquehanna Valley,  was sent to assure the Indians adhered to the desires of the Iroquois Confederacy and maintained peace with their trading partners, the English.  This was a period of increased  movement of many tribes from the south and through Pennsylvania to the Iroquois capital at Onandaga in New York.  Shikellamy succeeded  in helping to shift Pennsylvania Indian policy to favor the Iroquois over the Lenape/Delaware  . Conrad Weiser , a close friend to the Chief, and Shikellamy paved the way for the Walking Purchase of 1737 in which the Delaware and Shawnee lost the last of their eastern Pennsylvania lands,   dismantling the practice of William Penn to treat with "his Indians" -the native Lenni Lenape [aka Delaware]23. The Iroquois were willing to conspire with the Penns to remove the Lenape/Delaware , for a profit,  from their remaining lands .  When, in   1728, Shikellamy moved with his family to the Susquehanna Valley,  the region was seeing increased white settlement,  was aware of the  anger of Lenape/Delaware and Shawnee regarding pressures to relinquish their lands,  and experienced a steady stream of  southern Indian refugees moving slowly  towards the Iroquois capital, having asked, and recieved , permission from the confederacy to move through Pennsylvania. Along the way, the refugees  established temporary camps, and both James Logan  and Conrad  Weiser understood that the Iroquois were obligated to provide protection to persons in  the confederacy's covenant chain  seeking its protection. "Taking advantage of this situation,  and in order to assure peace between the colonials and the natives, Chief Shikellamy was appointed by the highest governing body of the Confederacy, the Onandaga Council, to act with Iroquois authority over the tribes of Pennsylvania.   This official was known among the Delawares as Shikellamy, which is pronounced  ìShi-KELL-a-mee,î and means  'Our Enlightener.î'24     In 1728 Shikellamy and his family "took up residence at Shikellamyís Town, about 10 miles north of Pennsylvaniaís eighteenth-century Indian capitol Shamokin, at the Forks of the Susquehanna [but with ] rumblings of upheaval on the eastern frontier, Shikellamy moved his family to  Shamokin" 21 [ present day Sunbury, Penna] . Shikellamy was appointed  vice-regent of the Six Nations by the Onondage Council, exercising   control over all Indian affairs in the Susquehanna Valley. The status of land transference and the suppressed role of the Lenape [aka Delaware] to the Iroquois during the release of their land by the Iroquois in 1737  receives deserved controversy involving  suspected white misunderstanding of the term "woman" used by the Iroquois to describe the relationship of the Iroquois to them, and the perhaps over stated  actual total dominance implied in most text  discussing the treaty and its participants [see foot note one] . It is also clear that despite maintaining mixed tribe residence in some Penna cities later, the Delaware did not hold sacred a covenant with the Iroquois, particularly after the forced loss of their land-Tachnechdorus [eldest son of Shikellamy and later known as the Mingo's Chief Logan]  told the Pennsylvania Council in 1756 that Logan and his family were living near Shamokin and were in jeopardy from hostile Delawares.26 Shikellamy , as a Chief of the Iroquois and member of its council, and through the changing Indian policy he encouraged in Conrad Weiser and James Logan of Philadelphia, assured Iroquois control of  the land and all the tribes that lived there, including that of  the Delaware and Shawnees. and any remnants of the Susquehannocks,  now known as Conestogas living  in greatly reduced numbers and by then in complete subjuation to  the Iroquois  for some 30 odd years.  "Permission to move, hunt and live within these open spaces by all tribes was at the pleasure of the Six Nations and subject to approval by Iroquois Council through Shikellamy." 21 .By absorbing his father's handling of Indian affairs and by gaining intimacy with the white agents, Chief Logan became a trusted friend of the whites and on moving to Ohio was elected Chief of the Mingo.  Chief Logan's younger brother , with whom he is often understandably confused,   maintained residency near Harrisburg in 1773.  "The botanist John Bartram described 'Shikellamy's son'  as tall and commanding, but in context Bartram seems to have referred to the older brother Tachnechdorus, who had inherited Shickellamy's mantle as Iroquois head man in the province. Nonspecific sources hint that Logan the Mingo was lame. He was certainly not Shickellamy's political  successor.  "Brother Tachnechdorus told the Pennsylvania Council in 1756 that Logan and his family were living near Shamokin and were in jeopardy from  hostile Delawares. The brothers tried to persuade the Delawares to resume friendship with Pennsylvania but were rebuffed angrily. Logan was "led astray" by those Delawares, according to his brother, but repented and desired to rejoin the Pennsylvanians. In August 1762, he attended the important treaty at Lancaster, but he did not speak. "26  .  " Conrad Weiser records in his journals that he had little difficulty distinguishing between Shikellamyís sons. The elder of the two was called Tachnechdours, or John, and the younger Tahgahjute, or James Logan, so named by his father in honor of the Secretary of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania. For the next 15 years, both sons were generally referred to as the 'Shikellamies,' and it was not until 1765, when they went their separate ways, that white men began to attach to Johnís name the surname 'Logan,' by mistake. So it was that both brothers became 'Logan.' Without the name John or James attached to Logan, it became virtually impossible to tell which Logan was meant when spoken of. .....Following the death of his father  Shikellamy in 1784 [sic ] , conditions on the Eastern frontier became increasingly ..... difficult for Logan. He was caught between two worlds. One world included the memory of the great friendship between [his father]  Shikellamy and Conrad Weiser, Pennsylvaniaís Indian ambassador  [and ] the many white men Weiser brought with him to Shamokin and witnessing their fair treatment of the Indians... On the other hand, the increasing westward pressure of longhunters, settlers and land grabbers for more territory in the homeland of the Indians made Logan very uneasy. Loganís days in the valley of the Susquehanna were numbered. [See The Settlement of Adams County and regions west of the Susquehanna discussed in  the Adams County Page's  Footnote One: Blunstone Linceses , discussing  the Penn agents attempts to expand beyond negotiated territory and in the region occupied by Shikellamy and his sons ]  "For the next five years, Logan resided at Loganís Spring in what us now Mifflin County, Pennsylvania.... Logan moved to the Ohio River in spring 1770...readily accepted by his Iroquois neighbors living in the Ohio Valley. These Iroquois, displaced from their ancestral homeland in New York state, were given the name Mingoes by local tradition; thus, Logan received a new name: Logan the Mingo, or Logan, Chief of the Mingoes. And it is at this point, in the summer of 1773, that we get our final real evidence that John and James Logan were living at opposite ends of Pennsylvania. Most early historians had proclaimed James Logan as Chief Logan and placed his home on the Ohio; however, historian Paul A. W. Wallace reports the following information from the Bureau of Land Records in Harrisburg:"21   A warrant issued on September 17, 1773, for George Ballard, describes his tract of 300 acres in these words: " . . . situate on the East side of the North East Branch of Susquehanna about 3 or 4 Miles back of where James Logan was living in the vicinity of his father Shikellamyís old home near Shamokin (now Sunbury, Pennsylvania)." ("Logan the Mingo; A problem in   Identification," Repr., Pennsylvania Archeologist Bulletin XXXII, Dec. 1962: 92)"21  An unsuspecting victim of the struggle over territory with the evacuation of Fort Pitt in 1774 and Lord Dunmore's War subsequent, Logan lived  on the Ohio River near present  Wheeling, West Virginia26 ,  in close proximity of the whites, owing to his status as friendly native. Dunmore hoped to snatch up Shawnee lands, and engaged in propaganda against them, and numerous homesteaders swarmed into the region, with the same intent for land acquisition.  A large company of seventy to ninety men congregated at Wheeling and hired veteran frontiersman Michael Cresap as their leader. 26  In 1774, Chief Logan, ever a friend of the white man, returned from a hunting trip to find that his family [including his brother and sister]  had been killed by white settlers.  Exacting revenge, this once docile friend became a feared enemy. Eventually forced to surrendor, the message he sent to the Whites when they met with his war  ally Cornstalk [a Shawnee]  was made famous by Thomas Jefferson in his "Notes on the State of Virginia" . War broke out, Chief Logan himself was killed by his people, and The Mingos spread across Ohio- Some Mingo Indians lived with the Miami Indians, while others lived with the Shawnee. In 1831,  the United States forced the Mingos to sell their land, and the natives moved to reservations in the West.  Mingo Chief Logan Wrote:  "I appeal to any white man to say if he ever entered Loganís cabin hungry and he gave him not meat; if he  ever came cold and naked he clothed him not. During the course of the last long and bloody war, Logan remained idle in his cabin, an advocate for peace. Such was my love for the whites that my countrymen pointed as I passed and said, 'Logan is a friend of the white man.' I had even thought to have lived with  you but for the injuries of one man, Colonel Cresap, the late spring, in cold blood and unprovoked, murdered all the relatives of Logan, not even sparing his wives and children. There runs not a drop of my blood in the veins of any living creature. This calls on me for revenge, I have sought it; I have killed   many; I have grown glutted in my vengeance. For my country I rejoice at the beams of peace; but do not harbor any thought that mine is the joy of fear. Logan never felt fear. He will not turn his heel to save his life. Who is there to mourn for Logan? Not one. " Top of Page  The Natives of Eastern and South Central Pennsylvania: Page Contents  IroquoisMingoSusquehannocksShawneeLenni Lenape [Delaware]    Sources for This Page [annotated from larger list below] :  16, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26  16. The Iroquois. by Lee Sultzman. Part of First Nations Histories  21. Chief Logan: Friend, Foe or Fiction?  by Ronald R. Wenning.  The Journal of the Lycoming County Historical Society, Volume XXXVII, Number 1, Fall, 1997  22. Mingo Indians part of The Allegheny Regional Family History Society's Web pages  23. Weiser, Shikellamy and the Walking Purchase By  Al Zagofsky  24. Conrad Weiser from the   Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission  25. The Walking Purchase from   Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission  26. James Logan , Mingo Indian from The American National Biography, published by Oxford University Press under the auspices   of the American Council of Learned Societies.  Source List for Subject Title [Natives of Southeastern and Southcentral Pennsylvania]  , all pages  Below is the list of Sources utilized in all of the Natives of Pennsylvania Subject Title Pages, of which the numbers above are part.  1. State Museum of Pennsylvania. Brief Summary of the 1681 Charter.  2.  York County History Pages of York County Webpages.  3. Penn and the Indians page of site entitled " William Penn. Visionary Proprietor"  by  Tuomi J. Forrest  4 Indians, Sources, Critics by Will J. Alpern (Prudential-Bache Securities). Presented at the 5th Cooper Seminar, James Fenimore Cooper: His Country and His Art at the State University of New York College at Oneonta, July, 1984. ©1985 by State University of New York College at Oneonta ["may be downloaded and reproduced for personal or instructional use, or by libraries" ] Originally published in James Fenimore Cooper: His Country and His Art, Papers from the 1984 Conference at State University of  New York College -- Oneonta and Cooperstown. George A. Test, editor. (pp. 25-33)  5. Kittanning-pa.com  6.  SUSQUEHANNOCK HISTORYpart of First Nations, Issues of Conesquence pages. Lee Sultzman     7. SUSQUEHANNOCK HISTORY, Lee Sultzman. Part of First Nations Histories  8.Information on the Susquehannock Indians from Pagewise  9.  Delaware History by Lee Sultzman.. Part of First Nations Histories  10. Where are the Susquehannock now?  part of the pages of BrokenClaw.com  12. Native Americans Post Contact:, from The Mariners Museum, Newport News, Va pages  13. .  Internet School Library Media Center, Monacan Indians page.  14. AN AMERICAN SYNTHESIS The Sons of St. Tammany or Columbian Order . [ the footnotes evident in the text takent from "an American Synthesis" can be accessed at the link given in source  15. Iroquois . By: Joe Wagner, with references provided.  16. The Iroquois. by Lee Sultzman. Part of First Nations Histories  17 William Henry Harrison and the West  , part of Dr James B. Calvert's pages at University of Denver Website.  At the time of Penn's arrival in 1682, the Susquehannock were subservient to the Iroquois Confederacy, just as their enemies and neighbors, the Delaware , were. The Susquehannock were decimated by war and disease, but the Lenape remained vital.  18. Shawnee's Reservation  a detailed site on Shawnee History  19. Shawnee History by Lee Sultzman. . Part of First Nations Histories  20. Marjorie Hudson, Among the Tuscarora: The Strange and Mysterious Death of John Lawson, Gentleman, Explorer, and Writer,  North Carolina Literary Review, 1992 [transcribed at East North Carolina Digital History Exhibits]  21. Chief Logan: Friend, Foe or Fiction?  by Ronald R. Wenning.  The Journal of the Lycoming County Historical Society, Volume XXXVII, Number 1, Fall, 1997  22. Mingo Indians part of The Allegheny Regional Family History Society's Web pages  23. Weiser, Shikellamy and the Walking Purchase By  Al Zagofsky     24. Conrad Weiser from the   Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission  25. The Walking Purchase from   Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission  26. James Logan , Mingo Indian from The American National Biography, published by Oxford University Press under the auspices   of the American Council of Learned Societies.  27. The Lineage of Mother Bedford from Mother Bedford ,  a website devoted primarily to the history of Old-Bedford County, Pennsylvania during the American Revolutionary War period.  28.   Year 1736.  part of the webpage entitled "Ben Franklin :A  Documentary History"  by J A Leo Lemay , English Department , Professor University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.  29. Shawnee' entry from Hodge's Handbook Abstract: The 'Shawnee' entry from Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, edited by Frederick  Webb Hodge (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 30. GPO: 1910.)  30. sample chapter of At the Crossroads  Indians and Empires on a Mid-Atlantic Frontier, 1700-1763  by Jane T. Merritt [book content , availability and sample chapter  viewable and obtained via The University of North Carolina Press]  and  (New Jersey) Extract from  The Indian Tribes of North America  by John R. Swanton.  Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145ó1953. [726 pagesóSmithsonian Institution] (pp. 48-55). Presented in pages of the Northern Plains Archive Project web site. Photo
755874477892655_772978129515623 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772978129515623 Indigenous People Matter shared FeatherSpeak's photo. Photo
755874477892655_772959316184171 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772959316184171:0 White Bear my Spirit Guide Photo
755874477892655_772957052851064 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772957052851064 Earth Prayer  Grandfather, Great Spirit, once more behold me on earth and lean to hear my feeble voice.  You lived first, and you are older than all need, older than all prayer.  All things belong to you -- the two-legged, the four-legged, the wings of the air, and all green things that live. You have set the powers of the four quarters of the earth to cross each other.  You have made me cross the good road and road of difficulties, and where they cross, the place is holy.  Day in, day out, forevermore, you are the life of things. Hey! Lean to hear my feeble voice. At the center of the sacred hoop You have said that I should make the tree to bloom. With tears running, O Great Spirit, my Grandfather, With running eyes I must say The tree has never bloomed  Here I stand, and the tree is withered. Again, I recall the great vision you gave me. It may be that some little root of the sacred tree still lives. Nourish it then That it may leaf And bloom And fill with singing birds! Hear me, that the people may once again Find the good road And the shielding tree.  - Black Elk 3   Oh Great Creator come to me, help me understand thee NiG Status
755874477892655_772955726184530 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772955726184530 https://youtu.be/refQXUNrt9w Link
755874477892655_772955136184589 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772955136184589 OK back to History : Tonight we discuss  Brunswick House First Nation Brunswick House First Nation is an Ojibway-Cree First Nation in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in the Sudbury District, 157 kilometres (97.6 mi) northeast of Sault Ste Marie, Ontario. The First Nation have reserved for themselves the 9,054.2 hectares (22,373.4 acres) Mountbatten 76A Indian Reserve and the 259.8 hectares (642.0 acres) Duck Lake 76B Indian Reserve. As of June, 2008, it had a registered population of 639 people, of which their on-Reserve population was 171 people.  Brunswick House is policed by the Nishnawbe-Aski Police Service, an Aboriginal based service. Brunswick House First Nation elects their leaders through the Act Electoral System, consisting of a Chief and three Councillors. The current Chief is Kevin Tangie. Together with Councillors Charmaine Saunders, Majorie Tangie and Irene Redbreast, their current term ends on August 10, 2015.  Brunswick House First Nation is a member of the Wabun Tribal Council, a Regional Chiefs' Council, which in turn is member of the Nishnawbe Aski Nation, a Tribal Political   But then there is Duck Lake Sask  The Duck Lake Fight - 1885 Fort Carlton left in northern Saskatchewan, was the main Hudson's Bay supply post in the area, and had been reinforced by the Northwest Mounted Police (NWMP) during the unrest.  At Fort Carlton Police Superintendent Leif Crozier right was in charge of safety for the region.   The frontier was hotting up as Louis Riel below and his Provisional Government at Batoche wanted to take over Fort Carlton, and offered to let Crozier and his men to go free, in exchange for the Fort.  Between Fort Carlton and Batoche was the Duck Lake store which held provisions and guns that would be useful to both the Mounted Police and Riel's men, should a conflict break out.  On March 25 the Métis raided several stores in Duck Lake looking for food and weapons.  The following day, a force of  53 policemen and 47 armed civilians left Fort Carlton for Duck Lake.  The Métis under Gabriel Dumont left had already taken control of Duck Lake when the sledding group of 100 men under Superintendent Crozier from Fort Carlton arrived, looking for provisions.  The Métis waited in hiding. To avoid hostilities Dumont's brother and a group of Métis approached the mounted force to talk. The situation became confused. A misunderstanding led to a grab for a gun, a rifle shot, and Gabriel Dumont's brother fell dead.  Crozier ordered his men to begin shooting and one of the armed civilians fired a shot, and fighting broke out Five Métis and 12 policemen were killed. Eleven more men were injured, and some later died.  After 40 minutes, the police were getting the worst of it, and so fled from the scene.  Dumont wanted to chase the police as they retreated, but Riel intervened and held him back to prevent Dumont - angered over the cold-blooded killing of his brother - from having his men follow and kill the fleeing troopers.  Some 17 of Crozier's men died as a result of the fight; Riel's group lost 5 men.  The fight became known as the Battle of Duck Lake.  The following day Crozier abandoned Ft. Carlton, which accidentally burned to the ground, after he left for the safety of Fort Battleford.  A lamp that was kicked over started a fire when soldiers were mixing coal oil into flour they couldn't take and didn't want to leave for the Indians. Photo
755874477892655_772891866190916 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772891866190916 Let's be clear the go fund me page to help me pay for this page. Which I have spent $1034.73 to date. I chose to do this help and educate and bring peace. To help me understand the red road. Omg some people can be so rude. The those people I will you peace and understanding. Status
755874477892655_772735782873191 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772735782873191 No words needed Photo
755874477892655_772730512873718 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772730512873718 The last step: we have last people we loved deeply to death . Give yourself permission to let them go. By writing they name down you set them free and yourself.  1- mom and dad Status
755874477892655_772727796207323 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772727796207323 The next step is : If you knew you were going to die tonight, who is the one person you need Say I am sorry to. Write only the first name, this is the first step in healing broken hearts.  1- James Status
755874477892655_772708849542551 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772708849542551 Good Morning We are going to start this day with listing 5 things your thankful for. By writing it down it makes very real in you heart. 1- my children 2- my wonderful husband  3-the home we share 4- the food on my table 5-the education I have received Status
755874477892655_772464362900333 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772464362900333 The person that just called me a Jesuit: here is the definition: 1. (Roman Catholic Church) a member of a Roman Catholic religious order (the Society of Jesus) founded by Saint Ignatius Loyola in 1534 with the aims of defending the papacy and Catholicism against the Reformation and to undertake missionary work among the heathen 2. (sometimes not capital) a person given to subtle and equivocating arguments; casuist [C16: from New Latin Jēsuita, from Late Latin Jēsus + -ita-ite1] ˌJesuˈitic ˌJesuˈitical adj   Night Prayer  Hold on to what is good even if it is a handful of earth. Hold on to what you believe even when it is a tree  that stands by itself.  Hold on to what you must do even when it is a long way from here.  Hold on to life even when it is easier letting go.  Hold on to my hand even when I have gone away from you Status
755874477892655_772458559567580 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772458559567580 Saint Kateri Tekakwitha (pronounced [ˈɡaderi deɡaˈɡwita] in Mohawk), given the name Tekakwitha, baptized as Catherine[3][4] and informally known as Lily of the Mohawks (1656 – April 17, 1680), is a Roman Catholic saint who was an Algonquin–Mohawk laywoman. Born in the Mohawk village of Ossernenon, on the south side of the Mohawk River, she contracted smallpox in an epidemic; her family died and her face was scarred. She converted to Roman Catholicism at age nineteen, when she was renamed Kateri, baptized in honor of Saint Catherine of Siena. Refusing to marry, she left her village and moved for the remaining 5 years of her life to the Jesuit mission village of Kahnawake, south of Montreal in New France, now Canada.  Tekakwitha took a devout vow of perpetual virginity. Upon her death at the age of 24, minutes later witnesses said her scars vanished and her face appeared radiant and beautiful. Known for her virtue of chastity and mortification of the flesh, as well as being shunned by her tribe for her religious conversion to Catholicism, she is the fourth Native American to be venerated in the Roman Catholic Church and the first to be canonized.[5]  Under the pontificate of Pope John Paul II, she was beatified in 1980 and canonized by Pope Benedict XVI at Saint Peter's Basilica on 21 October 2012.[6][7] Various miracles and supernatural events are attributed to her intercession. Status
755874477892655_772428189570617 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772428189570617 Hmmmm really now Photo
755874477892655_772427539570682 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772427539570682 Indigenous People Matter shared Keep Indigenous Culture Alive's photo. Photo
755874477892655_772422429571193 https://www.facebook.com/aboriginalpeoplematter/posts/772422429571193 Smudging your house before Christmas: Here are the three main supplies you will need in order to smudge your house:  1. A smudge stick  2. Candle & matches  3. A fireproof container  Step #1. Place the candle, the fireproof container and the smudge stick on a table, desk or any other appropriate surface. It is best if you create a sense of ceremony when you smudge your house, as well as find time when you will not be disturbed; 10-15 min should be enough. Step #2. Light the candle and say a prayer or just focus your energy. Light the tip of your smudge stick with a candle light, then gently wave the stick in the air till the tip begins to smoulder. Step #3. Hold the smudge stick over the fireproof container at all times in order to avoid any lit herbs falling on the floor. You can use a feather, if you have one, but usually just gently waving your hands to disperse the smoke is enough. Remind yourself to stay connected to your breathing throughout your smudging session.  6 of 9 Stay Connected to Your Breathing and Smudge All Areas feng shui and smudging - Bec Parsons/Getty Photo Credit: Bec Parsons/Getty Step #4. Go clockwise around your house (usually starting at the front door), and gently wave the smoke into the air. Spend a bit more time smudging the room corners, as they tend to accumulate stagnant energy. Be sure to also open the closet doors and carefully smudge inside. Do not forget about spaces such as the laundry room, the garage or the basement.  7 of 9 Final House Smudging Step  - BLOOM Image/Getty Photo Credit: BLOOM Image/Getty Step #5. When you have smudged all areas of your house, come back to where you started and gently extinguish your smudge stick (dipping it into sand while applying a bit of pressure usually works well). Wait a bit, then pack your smudge stick, as well as the container, till your next smudging session. You can leave the candle, if you so desire, to continue to purify the energy.  8 of 9 How To Smudge Yourself  - (c) etsy.com/WritingOnTheWallDsg Photo Credit: (c) etsy.com/WritingOnTheWallDsg Here's how to smudge yourself (or somebody else):  Once your smudge stick is lit and smouldering, direct the smoke waves to the overall energy field around your body, starting with the area above your head and continuing down to your feet. Do not forget to breathe deeply while you do that.  I have also seen smudging done more meticulously, as well as in the reverse order - starting with the soles of the feet, going up both sides of the legs, torso, arms and finishing by smudging the space above the head.  See what works best for you. The same steps apply when you are asked to smudge somebody else, be it a friend or a child. It is usually a good idea to smudge yourself before, as well as after you smudge the house. 9 of 9 (\You will not believe the feeling in the house after smudging, it is free, the air is light, your spirits change. Just do it) Link
755874477892655_772419109571525 http://www.facebook.com/media/set/?set=ms.c.eJwzNzcyMbQ0NDKyNDCxMDXXM4fwLSxNzQ1NDWF8I2OwvIkZAOb8CZ8%7E-.bps.a.772419109571525.1073741835.755874477892655&type=1 Stolen Generations Photoype your paragraph here.

Type your paragraph here.

Good Morning My Family, I am on the ball already with today's first history piece. I Love watching all comment on my articles as you discover your family roots. Anyway here it is:

Abnaki. (Wâbuna'ki, from wâbun, a term associated with 'light,' 'white,' and refers to the morning and the east; a'ki 'earth,' 'land'; hence Wâbuna'ki is an inanimate singular term signifying 'eastland,' or 'morning-land,' the elements referring to animate dwellers of the east being wanting.- Jones). A name used by the English and French of the colonial period to designate an Algonquian confederacy centreing in the present state of Maine , and by the Algonquian tribes to include all those of their own stock resident on the Atlantic seaboard, more particularly the "Abnaki" in the N. and the Delawares in the S. More recently it has been applied also to the emigrant Oneida , Stockbridges, and Munsee about Green bay , Wis. By the Puritans they were generally called Tarrateens, a term apparently obtained from the southern New England tribes; and though that is the general conclusion of modern authorities, there is some doubt as to the aboriginal origin of this term. In later times, after the main body of the Abnaki had removed to Canada , the name was applied more especially to the Penobscot tribe. The Iroquois called them Owenunga, which seems to be merely a modification of Abnaki, or Abnaqui, the name applied by the French and used by most modern writers. The form Openango has been used more especially to designate the eastern tribes. Maurault ( Hist. des Aben. , 2, 1888) says: "Some English authors have called these savages Wabanoaks, 'those of the east'; this is the reason they are called 'Abenakis' by some among us. This name was given them because they were toward the east with reference to the Narragansetts."

Ethnic relations . - In his tentative arrangement Brinton ( Len. Leg ., 11, 1885) brings into one group the Nascapee, Micmac, Malecite, Etchimin, and Abnaki, but this is more of a geographic than a linguistic grouping. Vetromile ( Abnakis , 20, 1888), following other authors, says that we should "embrace under this term all the tribes of the Algic [Algonquian] family, who occupy or have occupied the E. or N. E. shore of North America; thus, all the Indians of the seashores, from Virginia to Nova Scotia, were Abnaki." Maurault gives the following as the principal tribes of the Abnaki confederacy: Kanibesinnoaks (Norridgewock in part; Patsuikets (Sokoki in part); Sokouakiaks (Sokoki); Nurhantsuaks (Norridgewock); Pentagoets (Penobscot); Etemankiake (Etchimin) Ouarastegouiaks (Malecite), the name Abnaki being applied in the restricted sense to the Indians of Kennebec r. All these tribes spoke substantially the same language, the chief dialectal differences being between the Etchimin and the other tribes of the group. The Etchimin, who formed a subgroup of the Abnaki confederacy, included the Passamaquoddy and Malecite. Linguistically the Abnaki do not appear to be more closely related to the Micmac than to the Delaware group, and Dr. William Jones finds the Abnaki closely related to the central Algonquian languages. In customs and beliefs they are more nearly related to the Micmac, and their ethnic relations appear to be with the tribes N. of the St. Lawrence.

History . - The history of the Abnaki may be said to begin with Verrazano's visit in 1524. The mythical accounts of Norumbega of the early writers and navigators finally dwindled to a village of a few bark-covered huts under the name Agguncia, situated near the mouth of Penobscot r., in the country of the Abnaki. In 1604, Champlain ascended the Penobscot to the vicinity of the present Bangor , and met the "lord" of Norumbega, doubtless an Abnaki chief. From that time the Abnaki formed an important factor in the history of the region now embraced in the state of Maine . From the time of their discovery until their partial withdrawal to Canada they occupied the general region from the St. John to the Saco; but the earliest English accounts indicate that about 1605-20 the S. W. part of the coast of Maine was occupied by other Indians, whose chief seat was near Pemaquid, and who were at war with the Abnaki, or Tarrateen, as the English termed them, who were more to the N.; but these other tribes were finally conquered by the Abnaki and probably absorbed by them. Who these Indians were is unknown. The Abnaki formed an early attachment for the French, chiefly through the influence of their missionaries, and carried on an almost constant war with the English until the fall of the French power in America . The accounts of these struggles during the settlement of Maine are familiar episodes in American history. As the whites encroached on them the Abnaki gradually withdrew to Canada and settled chiefly at Bécancour and Sillery, the latter being afterward abandoned by them for St. Francis, near Pierreville , Quebec . The Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, and Malecite, however, remained in their ancient homes, and, in 1749, the Penobscot, as the leading tribe, made peace with the English, accepting fixed bounds. Since that period the different tribes have gradually dwindled into insignificance. The descendants of those who emigrated from Maine together with remnants of other New England tribes, are now at St. Francis and Bécancour in Quebec , where, under the name of Abnaki, they numbered 340 in 1911. In 1903 the Malecite, or Amalicite, were numbered at 801 in several villages in New Brunswick and Quebec , with about 625 Penobscot and Passamaquoddy in Maine . The present Penobscot say they number between 300 and 400, while the Passamaquoddy claim as many as 800 souls.

Customs and beliefs . - According to the writers on early Maine , the Abnaki were more gentle in manners and more docile than their western congeners. Yet they were implacable enemies and, as Maurault states, watched for opportunities of revenge, as did other Indians. Notwithstanding Vetromile's statement to the contrary, if Maurault's assertion ( Hist. Abenakis , 25, 1866) applies to this tribe, as seems evident, they, like most other tribes, were guilty of torturing their prisoners, except in the case of females, who were kindly treated. Although relying for subsistence to a large extent on hunting, and still more on fishing, maize was an important article of diet, especially in winter. Sagard states that in his day they cultivated the soil in the manner of the Huron. They used the rejected and superfluous fish to fertilize their fields, one or two fish being placed near the roots of the plant. Their houses or wigwams were conical in form and covered with birch-bark or with woven mats, and several families occupied a single dwelling. Their villages were, in some cases at least, inclosed with palisades. Each village had its council house of considerable size, oblong in form and roofed with bark; and similar structures were used by the males of the village who preferred to club together in social fellowship. Polygamy was practised but little, and the marriage ceremony was of the simplest character; presents were offered, and on their acceptance marriage was consummated. Each tribe had a war chief, and also a civil chief whose duty it was to preserve order, though this was accomplished through advice rather than by command. They had two councils, the grand and the general. The former, consisting of the chiefs and two men from each family, determined matters that were of great importance to the tribe, and pronounced sentence of death on those deserving that punishment. The general council, composed of all the tribe, including males and females, decided questions relating to war. The Abnaki believed in the immortality of the soul. Their chief deities were Kechi Niwaskw and Machi Niwaskw, representing, respectively, the good and the evil; the former, they believed, resided on an island in the Atlantic ; Machi Niwaskw was the more powerful. According to Maurault they believed that the first man and woman were created out of a stone, but that Kechi Niwaskw, not being satisfied with these, destroyed them and created two more out of wood, from whom the Indians are descended. They buried their dead in graves excavated in the soil.

Tribal divisions . -The tribes included in the confederacy as noted by Maurault have already been given. In a letter sent by the Abnaki in 1721, to the governor of New England their divisions are given as follows: Narantsouuk (Norridgewock), Pentugouet (Penobscot), Narakamigou (Rocameca), Amnissoukanti (Amaseconti), Muanbissek, Pegouakki (Pequawket, N. H.), Medoktek (Medoctec), Kwupahag, Pesmokanti (Passamaquoddy), Arsikantegou (Arosaguntacook), Ouanwinak (Wewenoc, s. edge of N. H.). The following is a full list of Abnaki tribes: Accominta, Amaseconti, Arosaguntacook, Etchimin, Malecite, Missiassik, Norridgewock (the Abnaki in the most limited sense), Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, Pequawket Rocameca, Sokoki, and Wewenoc. The bands residing on St. Croix and St. John rs. spoke a different dialect from those to the southward, and were known collectively as Etchimin. They are now known as Passamaquoddy and Malecite. Although really a part of the Abnaki, they were frequently classed as a distinct body, while on the other hand the Pennacook tribes, although distinct from the Abnaki, were often classed with them on account of their connection during the Indian wars and after their removal to Canada. According to Morgan they had fourteen gentes: 1, Mals'-sum, Wolf; 2, Pi"uh', Black Wildcat; 3, Ah-weh'-soos, Bear; 4, Skooke, Snake; 5, Ah-lunk-soo, Spotted Animal; 6, Ta-mäk-wa, Beaver; 7, Maguh-le-loo', Caribou; 8, Kä-bäh'-seh, Sturgeon; 9, Moos-kwk-", Muskrat; 10, K'-che-gh-gong'-go, Pigeon Hawk; 11, Meh-ko-ä, Squirrel; 12, Che-gwä'-lis, Spotted Frog; 13, Koos-koo', Crane; 14, March'-weh-soos, Porcupine. According to Chauvignerie their principal totems were the pigeon and the bear, while they also had the partridge, beaver, and otter totems.

The Abnaki villages, so far as their names have been recorded, were Amaseconti, Ammoncongan, Aquadocta (?), Arosaguntacook, Asnela, Aucocisco, Bagaduce, Bécancou, Calais (Passamaquoddy) Gunasquamekook (Passamaquoddy), Imnarkuan (Passamaquoddy), Kennebec, Ketangheanycke, Lincoln Island, Masherosqueck, Mattawamkeag (Penobscot), Mattinacook (Penobscot), Mecadacut, Medoctec (Malecite), Meecombe, Missiassik (Missiassik), Moratiggon (?), Moshoquen, Muanbissek (?), Muscongus, Negas, Negusset (?), Norridgewock, Norumbega, Okpaak, (Malecite) Olamon (Penobscot), Old Town (Penobscot), Ossaghrage, Ouwerage, Pasharanack, Passadumkeag (Penobscot), Passamaquoddy (village?), Pauhuntanuc, Pemaquid, Penobscot, Pequawket, Pocopassum, Precaute, Rocameca, Sabine, Sagadahoc, Sainte Anne (Malecite), St Francis, Satquin, Sebaik (Passamaquoddy), Segocket, Segotago, Sillery, Sokoki (village?), Taconnet, Tobique (Malecite), Unyjaware, Viger (Malecite), Wabigganus, Waccogo, Wewenoc (village?).Type your paragraph here.

LAKOTA CODE OF ETHICS
1. Rise with the sun to pray. Pray alone. Pray often. The Great Spirit will listen, if you only speak.

2. Be tolerant of those who are lost on their path. Ignorance, conceit, anger, jealousy - and greed stem from a lost soul. Pray that they will find guidance.

3. Search for yourself, by yourself. Do not allow others to make your path for you. It is your road, and yours alone. Others may walk it with you, but no one can walk it for you.

4. Treat the guests in your home with much consideration. Serve them the best food, give them the best bed and treat them with respect and honor.

5. Do not take what is not yours whether from a person, a community, the wilderness or from a culture. It was not earned nor given. It is not yours.

6. Respect all things that are placed upon this earth - whether it be people or plant.

7. Honor other people's thoughts, wishes and words. Never interrupt another or mock or rudely mimic them. Allow each person the right to personal expression.

8. Never speak of others in a bad way. The negative energy that you put out into the universe will multiply when it returns to you.

9. All persons make mistakes. And all mistakes can be forgiven.

10. Bad thoughts cause illness of the mind, body and spirit. Practice optimism.

11. Nature is not FOR us, it is a PART of us. They are part of your worldly family.

12. Children are the seeds of our future. Plant love in their hearts and water them with wisdom and life's lessons. When they are grown, give them space to grow.

13. Avoid hurting the hearts of others. The poison of your pain will return to you.

14. Be truthful at all times. Honesty is the test of ones will within this universe.

15. Keep yourself balanced. Your Mental self, Spiritual self, Emotional self, and Physical self - all need to be strong, pure and healthy. Work out the body to strengthen the mind. Grow rich in spirit to cure emotional ails.

16. Make conscious decisions as to who you will be and how you will react. Be responsible for your own actions.

17. Respect the privacy and personal space of others. Do not touch the personal property of others - especially sacred and religious objects. This is forbidden.

18. Be true to yourself first. You cannot nurture and help others if you cannot nurture and help yourself first.

19. Respect others religious beliefs. Do not force your belief on others.

20. Share your good fortune with others.

~Native American Wisdom and Beauty PageType your paragraph here.